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Single vs Double Quotation Marks and When to Use Them in Academic Writing

What’s Up with Those Single Quotation Marks?

Lately I have been seeing single quotation marks on certain words and phrases in the headlines that float across the bottom of the TV screen. These phrases have nothing to do with the story being reported on. I am referring mostly to CNN. I started noticing these rolling sentences shortly after the 9-11 attacks on the World Trade Center. I am not sure what annoys me more-the fact that they are using single quotation marks in place of double quotation marks or the constant bombardment of information on the screen.

I have also noticed that approximately 20% of the writing I get from my clients employs single quotation marks to designate important concepts or key phrases. This clearly violates the U.S.-American convention.

When to use single quotation marks:

It is always appropriate to use single marks when you have a quote within a quote.

Ex., Mary said, “I don’t care that John said, ‘I won’t eat that old pasta.’ I am going to eat it anyway.”

So the enclosed quotation (what John says) gets the single quotation marks. British usage sometimes does the reverse, and this may be where the trouble lies. They put the single marks on the first speaker’s words and double marks on the second’s speaker’s words (the quote within the quote).

Another use of single quotation marks:

People in certain academic disciplines are accustomed to using single quotation marks on particular terms and phrases, which is contrary to what the vast majority of writers do in the United States. These fields are linguistics, philosophy, and theology. Tina Blue, an online writer, points out the following example:

Ex., There is an essential difference between ‘being’ and ‘becoming’.

Note that in this case the closing single quotation mark goes before the period, which is also contrary to common U.S. usage.

Aside from papers in linguistics, philosophy, and theology, there is no justification for the use of single quotation marks (except for a quote within a quote). When you want to draw attention to key words or phrases, use double quotation marks. What follows is an exhaustive list of the various occasions when double marks are called for.

When to use double quotation marks:

1. The first use is, of course, to designate words in a quote.

Ex., The doctor said, “You really should cut down on your smoking.”

Ex., Then I said, “I can’t do that without going to a smoking cessation program.”

Note that in U.S.-American English, commas and periods go before the closing quotation marks.

2. The Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (APA, 2010) lists another occasion when double marks are called for: “to introduce a word or phrase used as an ironic comment, as slang, or as an invented or coined expression” (p. 91).

Ex., This is considered “normal” behavior.

In the previous example, the writer is calling into question the whole concept of normality, which can at times be quite subjective.

Bell (2008) explains that when you use double marks, you will render the sentence sarcastic, as in her following example:

Ex., People in many countries enjoy the “liberty” of voting for the only candidate on the ballot (p. 128).

She warns, however, not to use quotation marks with idiomatic expressions. “Quotes are not for showing your discomfort with a colloquial expression. Either make your peace with the idiom and use it without quotes, or choose another way to say what you mean” (p. 129).

Ex., That test was a piece of cake.

There is no need to put “piece of cake” in quotes.

3. APA (2010, p. 91) recommends using double quotation marks “to set off the title of an article or chapter in a periodical,” as in the next example.

Ex., Riger’s (1992) article, “Epistemological Debates, Feminist Voices: Science, Social Values, and the Study of Women”…

4. APA (2010, p. 92) says to use double quotes to indicate a quote within a block quotation, as in the example that follows:

Ex., Miele (1993) found the following:

The “placebo effect,” which had been verified in previous studies, disappeared when [only the first group’s] behaviors were studied in this manner. (p. 276)

In the previous example, the writer wishes to call attention to the phrase “placebo effect.” Since this quote has more than 40 words (I didn’t put the whole quote, for the sake of brevity), the writer has blocked the quote; this means that every line of the quote is indented. Therefore, no quotation marks are needed around a block quote, as the indenting signals a quote. So if quotation marks are needed to call attention to a phrase, then we start with double quotation marks. That is why “placebo effect” is in double marks rather than single marks. Some people may get confused and think that this phrase should be in single marks, as it is a quote within Miele’s quote. We don’t put single marks because we already know it’s a quote due to the blocking; therefore, we start with the double marks.

5. Another use of double quotation marks is when you wish to give the translation of a foreign word. You can put the translation in double marks or in parentheses. The Chicago Manual of Style (CMS, 2003, p. 291) offers the following example:

The Prakit word majjao, “the tomcat,” may be a dialect version of either of two Sanskrit words: madjaro, “my lover,” or marjaro, “the cat.”

6. Use double quotes for a word used as a term.

Ex., What do you suppose “liberty” meant to Mr. Henry? (Bell, 2008, p. 128).

In the previous example, we are asking about what the term “liberty” meant to someone. So quotation marks draw attention to the term.

7. Merriam-Webster’s Guide to Punctuation and Style (1995, p. 51) says to use quotes when you wish to highlight the words themselves.

Ex., He went through the manuscript and changed every “he” to “she.”

When not to use double quotation marks:

Do not use double quotation marks when trying to hedge (APA, 2010, p. 92), as in the next example.

Ex., The teacher rewarded the class with tokens.

In the previous example, it is not necessary to put “rewarded” in quotation marks.

The APA manual also advises not using quotation marks to introduce a key phrase or a technical phrase. It recommends the use of italics instead.

Ex., She compared it with meta-analysis, which is described in the next section (p. 91).

Disciplines may vary with regard to this last point, so always check with your department or professor to see whether your school uses quotation marks or italics. Remember, if you do decide to use quotes to signal key concepts, make sure they are double.


American English practice differs from that of British English. If you live in the United States and are seeking to publish in U.S. journals, it is advisable to use our system. Though nowadays there is a trend toward using single quotation marks instead of double marks, I recommend that you not jump on the bandwagon (even if CNN is doing it). The rule is simple: Use single marks
only to indicate a quote within a quote. Unless you are writing a paper in linguistics, philosophy, or theology, you should be using double marks for all of the cases discussed in this article. Tina Blue sums it up nicely at the end of her article: “We should just stick with the conventions that are already familiar to us, so we don’t commit the crime of stylistic inconsistency, which is always a danger when you try to adopt someone else’s way of doing things.”


American Psychological Association (APA). 2010. Publication manual of the American Psychological Association(6th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.

Bell, J. (2008). Clean, well-lighted sentences: A guide to avoiding the most common errors in grammar and punctuation. New York, NY: W. W. Norton.

Blue, T. (2001, January). Single vs. double quotation marks: Once again British and American usage differ.

Merriam-Webster. (1995). Merriam-Webster’s guide to punctuation and style. Springfield, MA: Author.

University of Chicago Press. (2003). The Chicago manual of style (15th ed.). Chicago, IL: Author.

Source by Vitalee Giammalvo


Business Memos – 10 Tips for Writing Memos That Get Action

Memo is short for Memorandum. It is a simple way to communicate important information within an organization. Writing a clear, well organized memo is a valuable business skill.

Memos are used to communicate information and get results by focusing on one clear call to action.

Here are 10 tips for writing a memo that will get the action you want.

1. Audience needs: Think of the audience and their needs. This is essential in the call-to-action. For example, tell your readers how they will benefit from attending an extra meeting or how they will increase productivity by following your ideas.

2. Audience level: Consider the education, background, and company status of your readers, and write to the level that matches their needs.

3. Tone: A business memo is somewhat formal, but it’s less formal than a business letter. It won’t help you to address a group of co workers in a very formal manner. It’s fine to have a friendly tone, but still be business-like. Match your style and tone to your audience.

4. Common language: Make sure everyone understands you. If you work in a technical field, be careful about using jargon that some readers may not understand. You may want to write different versions of the same memo to people in different departments.

5. Informative subject line: This explains simply and clearly what the memo is about. Similar to a subject line in an email message, the subject line is crucial to getting people to read your memo.

6. Write the bottom-line first: The first sentence or two should give the main point. Don’t add extra information leading up to the point. Remember, this isn’t a story, it’s a business document.

7. Clear and concise: Check for extra wording; keep the memo to one page or less, and use attachments or separate summaries for additional information. Keep the memo structure simple and logical. Limit paragraphs to one idea.

8. Factual: Use a neutral or positive tone. Avoid emotionally-charged words.

9. Conclusion: If needed, add a conclusion to reaffirm or summarize the main points.

10. Formatting: Use the standard format outlined in many guides, or follow your company’s guidelines.

There are many aspects to writing an effective memorandum, using the correct format.

Source by Lynda Goldman


How To Make A Girl Fall In Love With You – In 4 Easy Ways

by sinnga kilam 0 Comments

Love is indeed a tough business and it’s very hard to make a girl fall in love with you. Love is much more intense and involves deep feelings and emotions. Girls normally tend to be highly demanding when it comes to the issue of love. Girls are always looking for that perfect one who would love her and keep her happy for the rest of her life. You can make a girl fall in love with you if you become all that she desires and wants in a man. Read on to find out how you can make a girl fall in love with you and achieve desired results.

Fake it till you make it- Well it’s a dirty way to make a girl fall in love with you but it sure does work. Try to get into a personality which almost every girl would love and admire. Become someone they would love to be with. The best way is to surround yourself as many females as possible and be the one and only they would love to be with. When you become a rare commodity you would find more girls falling in love with you than ever before.

Appeal right to her heart- Yes we all know there is a big connection between heart and love therefore the best way to make a girl fall in love with you is to appeal right to her heart. Now by this it means appeal to her emotions and get her to involve her emotions. If a girl feels emotionally attached to you than your job of making her falling in love with you is half done.

Be the one who clicks- Girls are always looking out for males who are the so called ones and with whom girls can spend the rest of their lives with. So how to become this one and only who would click? The best way to do this is to be everything and have every ingredient which a girl would expect in her man whom she would love.

Be the prince charming- Every girl expects that a prince charming would come into their life some day who would love them with all his heart. Life is not much of a fairy tale but girls do want it to be that way. The best way to make girls fall in love with you is to become that very prince charming that they expect. Whenever you spend time with her make it the best time of her life and make her enjoy your company. Girls normally tend to fall in love with guys whom they feel comfortable and safe around.

Source by Pushpa Pal Singh


Ask for the Moon and Get It by Percy Ross Philanthropist

Ask for the Moon and Get It

Percy Ross the author of the above book began life in poverty but through hard work became a millionaire and philanthropist, giving all his money away before he died, relatively recently. He wrote the above book when he was 70. He was known for giving away silver dollars as a symbol of hope to poor children and had a column in newspapers called “Thanks a Million”, from which he helped countless people with their requests.

His parents were Jewish immigrants, his father was a scrap merchant, and scraped by hardly making enough to feed his children. At the age of 7 Percy was taught how to sell eggs to neighbours to help put food on the table. Lessons he learnt that helped him all his life, he developed ten rules for success and the correct ways to ask for what you need.

As a child he disparately wanted a bicycle like other boys, but his father couldn’t afford it, eventually he got him a very old bike but Percy was overjoyed with it. Bicycles featured strongly in gifts to underprivileged children. By 1977 he had given away 100 new bikes but in 1971 he held a Christmas party for needy children and gave away over a thousand shiny new bikes.

Percy put his success down to learning from his father the right way to ask for what he needed. The book dwells on his ten lessons for success. It is a beautiful book to stimulate and inspire, I hope it is still in print. Yes, it is still available in book stores! So you can enjoy it too and study his 10 rules

to bring you your success

Percy’s Rules:

Know what you want

Ask the right person

Prepare a good case

Give in order to receive

Overcome the blocks to asking

Ask artfully

Request don’t demand or beg

show respect

Ask and keep asking

Go beyond me to we.

Percy goes into great detail how he chose whose dreams he fulfilled according to the way they asked and the needs of the people who wrote in for help. I’m not sure if I unknowingly asked in the right way but I have managed to fulfill two of my dreams I have an online business and we are living in the sun.

If an online business is one of your dreams the easiest way to start is with affiliate marketing with the guidance of a successful mentor. Excellent products sales pages and training will be provided to reduce the amount you have to learn before you start earning. It is a great way of life and gives time freedom and choice of location, you just need a laptop.

So whatever your dreams I hope you are inspired by Percy Ross and enjoy his life-story.

Other books to inspire you:

“The Power of Your Subconscious Mind” by Joseph Murphy. Believe in yourself

“Feel the Fear and Do It Anyway” by Susan Jeffers. Read if you have doubts

“The Which Guide to Buying Property Abroad

Source by Anne O’Dwyer


Sell More Accessories – Jimmy Ralph's Tips to Build a Successful Accessory Sales Plan

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“For many wireless retailers, accessory sales are an afterthought – a category that provides some incremental sales and profitability, but one (whose) true potential remains untapped,” said Jimmy Ralph, in a Dealerscope article published last year.

The President of Retail Business Development, Inc., an independent wireless retail consulting firm, Ralph insists accessories are both needed and wanted. But in order to fulfill such customer needs and wants, he says, “You’ll need a plan.”

Before putting together a plan, a retailer must first take stock of what his/her store is currently doing, in terms of total accessory sales, sales per location, and gross profit from accessory sales. From this information, Ralph says, you build your accessory sales plan.

1. Accessory assortment

To determine which accessories you plan to sell, it’s obviously best to look at what handset models you carry and match accessories to them. “This process will identify why items are missing from your current assortment and which items overlap,” explains Ralph.

It is also important to organize accessories based on categories (i.e. utilitarian versus fashion accessories, car accessories, Bluetooth, etc.) and also carry a range of items that clearly vary based on features and price. “Look at it from the consumer’s point of view and build your assortment from there.”

2. Merchandising

From the assortment plan, the merchandising plan can be made. “Evaluate your store space. Do you have the proper display fixtures?” Ralph asks. He suggests talking to professional fixture companies about affordable “off-the-shelf” merchandising solutions and asking accessory suppliers about vendor displays that highlight particular items.

“Merchandise in categories, together with proper signage,” he says. Fashion items should be most visible. “Fashion purchases are emotional. If a customer sees something they like, they may buy it. If they can’t see it, the chances of them buying are slim. Your merchandising will act as a silent salesperson, complementing the efforts of your sales team.”

3. Pricing and promotions

Base pricing should be relative to your competition’s pricing and strategy, Ralph says. “You don’t need to have the lowest price,” he adds, however. “In fact, many retailers leave thousands of dollars in profitability on the table by pricing their accessories too low.”

Ralph suggests setting your base pricing then creating bundles or package deals. “This gives your customers a reason to buy multiple items, increasing your revenue and profitability; and just as importantly, it gives your sales team a value proposition and something to get excited about.”

4. Training

Product knowledge and sales techniques are paramount. “Your staff needs to know what you carry, where to find it, how it works and what it fits.” A big challenge is encouraging the sales team to take the extra step in asking customers to buy accessories, notes Ralph. “They often feel guilty asking… (or) prejudge and don’t think (customers) want them, or that customers don’t have the money.” The sales team must shed their insecurities and offer up accessories confidently, just as they do handsets. Ralph suggests pairing accessory sales training with a strong incentive program.

5. Sales incentives

“Motivate your team,” he says. “It’s the old ‘what’s in it for me?’ routine.” Ralph says that although most retailers offer salespeople incentives to push accessory sales, one way to “kick start” a sales drive is to offer short-term incentives that aren’t necessarily money.

“Create tiered sales goals by store and/or salesperson. For each tier, pay out prizes – make them progressively better as the tiers get higher. Lay out a big prize for outstanding performance – a trip to Las Vegas or a plasma TV.”

Ralph also suggests appealing to salespeople’s emotions by publishing weekly updates and rankings so everyone can size up the competition and create excitement. “The secret here is that for a reasonable investment you can create the sales behaviour that will continue even after the contest or promotion is over.”

6. Launch plans

“Start your (accessory sales) program with a bang,” says Ralph.

Launching everything at once – inventory, displays, new signs, training materials – catches everybody’s attention. “The bigger deal you make of your new accessory sales drive, the more effective it will be.”

7. Follow up

After launch, the excitement needs to stay high. “Set your goals, monitor them and communicate progress. Award the winners and coach those not yet on the program.”

Ralph boasts that a recent Retail Business Development project, a multi-store chain followed these simple steps and saw immediate improvement, doubling its accessory sales virtually “overnight.”

See what Jimmy Ralph’s accessory-selling secrets can do for your wireless retail business…

Source: “Hidden Treasure: The Secrets to building a successful accessory sales plan” – Dealerscope, April 1, 2006

Sell More Smartphones than Ever Using Promo Items to Drive Sales Diversify Your Product Offerings to Generate More Sales.

Source by Allan Pulga


Top 3 Public Speaking and Presentation Skills Tips for You to Be a Persuasive and Dynamic Speaker

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Here are the top 3 presentation skills and public speaking tips that will guide you to becoming a powerful, persuasive and dynamic public speaker.

1. BE A DYNAMIC SPEAKER – well, duhhhh, right? But here’s how…

If I could offer only one piece of advice, it would be PASSION! Passion is at the heart of great public speaking and presentation skills.

Just as real estate’s first three rules are location, location, location, speaking’s first three are passion, passion, passion.

a. Pick a subject for which you have great, passionate feeling. Even if it’s accounting, identify, articulate and feel your passion for accounting and speak about it.

If you must speak about something for which you aren’t passionate, first try not to, but if you must, tell a story of passion (and humor) that is related to or associated with your subject.

b. Access the great positive meaning to you in your subject-meaning that is likely to be shared by others; not meaning that is unique to you.

c. Then don’t “talk” about your passion. Don’t describe anything. LIVE and share your passion through stories and anecdotes, actively, vividly and intensely experiencing the story in your imagination, heart, soul and body. Feel your story and it’s great meaning I your entire spiritual and physiological being. Literally. Feel it. Then express it with your entire being.

d. Facts, figures, opinion, data, narrative are most often useless. Limit them as much as possible. Use them only and briefly as supporting evidence, not as a main storyline.


The second presentation skills tip: PRESENCE!!!

Presence is as important as passion. When you are wholly present in the moment with us, with yourself, and with your passion for your message: WOW!!! We will be captivated.

a. We perfect presence through meditation. Meditate! As a practice and in mini-moments throughout the day. Constantly check in with yourself and ask yourself if you are wholly present in the moment with whatever your #1 priority is or should be in that moment.

b. Presence is the foundation of all good things in life: mental health, emotional health, spiritual health, relationships (with ourselves, others and God), Peak Performance, public speaking, etc. c. And, again, meditation is the pathway to presence.


The third most important presentation skills tip for effective presentations: STORIES!

a. Don’t “tell” stories. Actively, passionately live the story in the moment, in your imagination, then share your experience with the audience through your voice, words and, most importantly, your body (arms, hands, legs, face, etc).

b. Stories must be about meaning, purpose, with conflict and obstacles

c. You should not be the hero of your story. Play, at most, a co-staring role.

d. Live the story vividly in your imagination as you tell it. See, hear and feel that action

e. Limit or eliminate stats and numbers.

f. If you must use numbers, humanize it. For example, telling you that 50,000 people a year die from heart disease (or whatever the real number is), leaves you cold. However, sharing a story of the pain of one person or family because of heart disease can, if told well, profoundly move you.

There you have it. The top 3 of fifteen tips for powerful, persuasive and dynamic public speaking and presentation skills.

Source by Christopher Babson


4 Tips to Make Your Own Instrumental Like a Professional Producer

by sinnga kilam 0 Comments

Everybody knows the name of the artist that made their favorite song. They might even know the lyrics word by word because they love the song so much. Let me ask you a question though, how many people do you think knows the name of the person who made the instrumental to that song they love so much?

If you guessed not many, then that was a good guess. You see, the instrumental is so important to the success of a song that many artists have to hear an instrumental first and get inspired before they can even begin writing a song. If you ask me, the artist’s lyrics doesn’t even have to be very compelling. As long as the instrumental is above average, the song will have the potential to be a hit.

Even though the people behind the scenes making the instrumentals don’t get as much notoriety, they are well compensated. People making a living off making beats learned and lived by these 4 tips. So if you want to make your own instrumental for a career or you just want to make your own instrumental for the fun of it, learning these 5 tips will help you to reach your full potential.

4 Tips To Make Your Own Instrumental Like A Pro

1. Find A Mentor:

Look for someone that has been making instrumentals for a long while, because it is most likely they have been through and conquered everything your going through right now. A mentor can help you speed up the learning process by giving you good advice on various things. Even if you have already been making instrumentals on your own for a while it’s still a good idea to find a mentor, because a mentor can teach you new tricks and techniques you never knew possible.

2. Utilize Samples:

Learning the art of the sample is well worth your time. The right sampled music can give your new instrumental a more three-dimensional sound. The best way to learn how to sample properly is to play with it until you develop an ear for sampling.

3. Pick Your Equipment Wisely:

Whether it’s a MPC or PC based production software, you are going to have to choose your beat making program wisely. You can easily waste a lot of money and time trying to find the right program to utilize. For a beginner it’s best to find one at a cheap price, with a wide range of sounds to experiment, and an easy to learn system.

4. Learn Your Equipment Like The Back Of Your Hand:

If your serious about making instrumentals like a professional producer, then you must learn study your equipment daily. Many top producers don’t learn every operation of their equipment for at least 3 years. So if you think you know every thing their is to know about your program think again. Play with your equipment constantly and every day try to learn something knew about your equipment.

Learn and live by these 4 tips and you will without a doubt have an edge over a high percentage of producers.

Source by Jason Harold


The Effects of Information Technology on Management

In today’s business climate, technology is advancing more rapidly than many organizations can keep up with. Frequently, a number of the larger corporations, and even small to medium-sized businesses as well, now hire technology consultants and highly educated technical staff to keep their organizations competitive and up to date with the latest technological changes and improved software and equipment that can make their businesses more efficient and productive. However, the advantages for these businesses that do stay informed and up to date with the latest technological changes is that they are able to increase revenues and profits at a faster pace and promulgate the overall success of the company.

Technology is quickly becoming a key factor in any type of business, and the latest technological innovations are what are leading to not only increased sales and exposure, but also less costly methods of marketing and advertising and greatly increased productivity. In manufacturing, many processes that were once performed manually or machines that were operated by manpower are now being operated remotely and run by automated processes. With decreased opportunities for employment in manufacturing and less skilled trades, many workers are gaining an education and expanding their own personal skills to accommodate a changing business environment.

In administrative functions, computers have offered the benefits of readily accessible databases of information and streamlined processes as well. Virtual offices and even telephone answering systems that operate as robotic receptionists have decreased the need for many positions here as well and offered businesses a more cost-effective approach to completing simpler office tasks. In terms of sales, the internet has helped open the doors for increased globalization and the ability to increase profits by reaching more people at one time. As a result, telemarketing and door to door sales calls have become not only unwelcomed by the general public, but also an outdated means of selling goods and services.

While the overall benefit to the end consumer is lower prices, businesses still reap the rewards of these decreased costs of operation and also greater efficiency and organization. For management, the increased reliance on information technology creates a number of issues. In terms of human resources, today’s human resources managers are searching for employees that are well trained with computers and know how to operate the latest technological equipment. In addition, a number of today’s top firms are hiring employees that telecommute or work from a remote location, and managers are now frequently managing teams from in front of a computer.

Another aspect of increased information technology that affects today’s management is security. Hacking, phishing, and other online security threats can create real issues for any type of business, but today’s managers have to be prepared to deal with these kinds of threats, teach the importance of security to employees, and know how to react when security has been breached.

Source by Christopher D. West


Professionalism in Translation Business

From the very beginning of human history when mankind started to speak different languages, individuals needed to communicate with different tribes to survive, avoid wars and progress. There were neither professional translators nor interpreter to do this job. Probably someone with more imagination than the rest, using body language and a lot of courage was doing this job. It was more a work of guessing than real understanding. A coding and decoding activity was used to get the message across as clearly as possible. The degree of responsibility was also huge. A badly conveyed message could lead to awful consequences. The interpreter was the mediator and had to measure each word very carefully. His family’s fate and his own wellbeing would often depend on those words and his capacity to convey the message accurately and sensibility.

The basic activity of the language interpreter and translator has not changed over time, but the tools, means, knowledge and way of working has revolutionized the profession completely.

Translators and interpreters do not transfer anything physical, but information, information that is never measured in Kilograms, but in computer bytes. Translators can not work as the primitive interpreters and translators anymore. The professionalism of the profession is a must and a necessity.

The translator’s work is not limited to converting one language into another. The end result has to be faithful to the original, nicely presented and competitive in price.

In order to achieve this, the professionalism is essential, some conditions the translators should meet are:

A) Be an upright person to follow a strict professional code of ethics. Translators often come across secret information; be a new invention, a good business chance, a company’s marketing strategy, etc. The good professional translator would never use this information to harm his client. The good professional translator is intelligent and knows that in the long run, honesty and loyalty pays off. The good professional translator knows that being fair to clients, is building his own carrier and his future as translator. These are basic behavior patterns regardless of non disclosure or confidentiality agreements.

B) Master the source and target languages to be able to convey the message faithfully. And specially the target language, where the translator has to transmit the small nuance. A good professional translator will translate to his/her native language or equivalent.

C) Be familiar with the topic or field being translated. The same word could mean something different in Economics or metallurgy.

D) Have some knowledge in computers and modern communication tools. To stay competitive and take full advantage of all its benefits.

E) Have capacity and be ready to learn and adapt to this fast moving technological world. Never stop learning.

F) Make all the points clear right from the beginning. Like cost of translation, delivery deadline, translation format, payment conditions, etc. and then feel the responsibility and HONOR THE AGREEMENT.

G) The translator should never accept translation work beyond his/her capacity. Accepting impossible tasks is one of the best ways to loose customers and build a bad reputation. It is hard to build a trustworthy reputation and very easy to loose it. Therefore always decline impossible tasks. Better say NO than sorry in this case.

The translator following some of the above advice will greatly increase the chances to succeed in this borderless profession where competition is fierce. Nowadays a translator needs to be more professional that in any other profession.

A bricklayer or anybody doing physical work will find competitors in his geographical surroundings. But the translator’s competitor could be located in the South Pole sending the translated work through the Internet. That is why professionalism is not a choice but a necessity.

Source by John T. Smith


Top 4 Tips To Date Older Women

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If you want to date older women (commonly known as cougars), you have to be very clear in your relationship goals. While most of the cougars are looking for a serious relationship from you, their expectations and desires are quite different from those of their younger counterparts. They are mature and expect the same from their male partners as well. Getting into a serious affair comes with a set of challenges. If you follow the below-mentioned tips, you will be able to overcome these challenges with ease. When you keep these tips in mind, you can not only keep your woman happy but you can also get a great deal of respect from here.

1. Improve your overall personality

Cougars love their male partners to be young and confident always. Irrespective of how young you are, make sure that you exude a positive energy around her when you both are together. When you go on a date, look into her eyes while holding a conversation. Talk about things that she loves and exhibits confidence while talking about your life and what you do for a living. Be chauvinistic; pull out the chair for her, ask her if she is comfortable with the food, walk her back gently while holding her hand. If you are an insecure individual who doesn’t know what to do in life, forget it! Cougars hate such personalities.

2. Never discuss her age

If you want to date a cougar and establish a good relationship with her, you should never discuss her age during any conversation. You can discuss how beautiful she looks, how clear her skin is, how bright her eyes are and how she makes you complete. These are the stuff that turns on a cougar and she would start looking forward to spending more and more time with you. If you bring the topic of her age (even unknowingly), a cougar will see it as a sign of your insecurity and will not think twice before ditching you.

3. Know to draw the line

While whispering sweet- nothings into each other’s ears are quite romantic to a certain extent, you should know when and where to draw the line while dating a cougar. Never make any sexual advances and never force her into any kind of physical intimacy, as these things reflect very badly on your character. Have long discussions with her, develop your sense of humour, make her laugh as much as you can and proceed towards the first step of intimacy only if she is keen on it.

4. Surprise her

Irrespective of her age, any woman loves sweet surprises at times in her life. If you want to date a cougar and proceed to the level of her boyfriend, plan surprises for her frequently. It doesn’t have to be anything exotic or grand; it could be a simple dinner at a place which serves her favourite cuisine. It could be gifting her a book that she had been looking for a long time or anything else. All of these are sure to impress your woman as it only tells that how much you care for her and how much her likes and dislikes mean to you.

Source by Satvik Mittal