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Classical Theories of Leadership

Some psychology experts believe that leaders are born, while others believe leadership is a skill that someone can learn. The study of the area of leadership concludes that there are four basic and classical theories of leadership. The theories cover the traits and characteristics of leaders and how leaders should behave.

Trait Theories

Trait theories cover the characteristics that great leaders possess. This theory was founded and researched by researchers such as Stogdill in 1948 and Mann in 1959. Early research states that leaders have traits such as assertiveness, the ability to motivate others and intelligence, which makes them innate and great leaders. While early research efforts focused on the traits and characteristics of leaders, other researchers found that there wasn’t any correlation between the traits and characteristics of leaders that were different from followers.

Behavior Theories

By the 1960s, researchers started focusing their research efforts on the behaviors of leaders. By 1968, the research led to the creation of the Blake and Mouton’s Managerial Grid. The grid groups work styles together to create four main working styles: “Concern for Tasks, Concerns for People, Directive Leadership and Participative Leadership.” These categories describe how leaders work and interact with followers to lead the followers to completing the tasks at hand.

Contingency Theories

Contingency theories focus on how leaders operate depending on which situation they find themselves. For example, a leader may emerge in a crisis but act differently as a leader in a day-to-day situation. Contingency theories state that the behaviors and traits of leaders change depending on the situation.

Transformation Theories

Transformational theories compare how leaders react in a transactional situation as opposed to a transformational situation. A transaction leader acts in a certain way as a tradeoff for a benefit-he acts in a small picture view rather than a big picture one. For example, a transactional leader may identify the benefits of a business reaching a certain goal. The leader then provides employee praise in exchange for the employee performing tasks to achieve the intended outcome. A transformational leader on the other hand acts from a big picture viewpoint. A transformation leader understands how all of the actions of the followers or employees help the business achieve a common goal. Not only does a transformational leader understand the goal from a big picture view, but the leader also educates the followers or employees on the big picture benefits that each small task accomplishes and motivates the followers in this way.

Charisma

Other theorists say that with the right personality-a charismatic one-a leader can motivate followers to do just about anything. People tend to have a human nature of wanting to help, work with or follow the orders of people they like. Proof of this theory may play our best in cult and political leaders who can motivate their followers to act as the leaders say.

Source by Kristie Lorette McCauley

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Bipolar Stories – A Mark of Genius?

A lot of celebrities suffered of bipolar disorder, or are now thought to have had it based on their lifeworks and stories. There have been so many, in fact, that it is considered by some to be a mark of genius. That may or may not be true, but it is easy to see why the connection is made after a look at the many famous people with bipolar disorder. You can read several bipolar stories here.

Many famous writers are believed to have had bipolar disorder. Mark Twain, famous and popular American humorist, writer and lecturer, suffered significant personal and professional loss with the demise of his publishing business. While bipolar symptoms are believed to have influenced his later life, Mark Twain is an example of a positive impact of bipolar disorder had on the creativity of one individual. Unfortunately, like with many bipolar celebrities many of his crazy business ideas had never come true.

Kurt Vonnegut is believed to have suffered from bipolar disorder. After a severe depression in 1969, when he published his world known novel Slaughterhouse-Five, he swore he would never write another book. However, he went on to write another novel only four years later. William Faulkner, who invented an entire fictional place Yoknapatawha County lived with the symptoms of bipolar disorder. The are plenty of other famous novelists and poets like Edgar Allan Poe, Robert Louis Stevenson and Virginia Woolf were known to be bipolar.

The are also other creative talents like Beethoven, Van Gogh and Isaac Newton have been also thought to have had from the disorder and probably it caused their exceptional gifts. Among modern politicians Winston Churchill and Benjamin Franklin are bright examples of a successful bipolar persons in modern history.

People who have bipolar disorder have influenced our lives in countless ways. Bipolar disorder has indirectly enrolled our loves affecting the health of those who have made considerable contributions to humanity. It is known that manic episodes or hypomania being a symptomatic part of the bipolar disorder often lead to times of intense productivity. And though bipolar disorder causes real distress for those who live it, it is difficult to deny that it is also can be considered to be a type of disorder of talented and genius people.

The topic of bipolar disorders is also extensively presented in books and novels. Patty Duke an academy award winning American actress used to be bipolar patient who has had bipolar attacks of disorder through out her life. She described the disease in her book and spoke about her struggle with disorder in numerous interviews. Kay Redfield Jamison, a well known psychologist was diagnosed bipolar disorder when she was 28, published two books, including her own experiences with the disease and analysis of interaction between illness and creativity. Other famous people also wrote about the topic and the way mental disorders influenced their life.

Many modern stars and celebrities have been diagnosed this type of mental disorders by their doctors. Actresses Linda Hamilton, Margot Kidder, Carrie Fisher, and already mentioned Patty Duke are the bipolar patients, while musicians such as Kurt Cobain, Ozzy Osbourne, Axel Rose, and Trent Reznor of Nine Inch Nails got the same diagnosis from mental professionals as well.

In the past, bipolar people were misunderstood and most other people actually feared them that is why their life was extremely complicated and often socially isolated. They needed to go through their life living with extreme pressure both from inside and outside.

Today, the disorder is treated with therapy and medication eliminating the major symptoms of the disease. At the same time many patients feel that the medications stunt their creativity.

Bipolar disorder shall be described as a life-long, permanent condition that must be carefully managed and continuously treated. Modern medical science made a lot to develop treatments that influence disorder without depressing creativity on the whole spectrum. Nowadays there are so many very well functioning bipolar people of above average creativity, although those used to have the life threatening depression symptoms. Famous bipolar people has proven that this disorder can not prevent people from leading a very normal full of creativity and innovative ideas life.

Source by Dmitrij Perstrik

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How to Earn His Love – What Really Makes a Man's Heart Beat Faster

Do you know how to earn his love? Do you know what you need to do to win a man’s heart? Do you know what men really want and what you can do to make them fall in love? Few women really know. We all think we know what makes a man’s heart beat faster but few women actually understand how the hearts and minds of our male counterparts work. It’s not easy to make a guy fall in love. Making a guy attracted to you is only the first step, if you want his love you will have to earn it. Here are some tips on how to earn his love.

Confidence

Men love confident, assertive women. Not only are confident women more attractive but they are also great to be around. If you exude positive energy then he’ll get a buzz from being around you.

Play to Your Assets

There’s no use feeling bad about yourself. Having low self esteem is a sure way to turn a guy off. So your hair might not be right, your nose might be too big or you might be carrying a few extra pounds, nobody’s perfect. Instead of focusing on your negative features, you need to learn to emphasize your best features. This is true of your personality as well as your outward appearance. Find out what your best features are and play them up. If you’ve got a great smile, use it. If you’ve got a great sense of humor, be funny. Do whatever you do best and let your assets take center stage, all those insecurities will disappear and he won’t even notice your flaws.

Be His Friend

If you want to make a guy fall in love with you, you have to offer him something that no other girl does. The truth is that men don’t just want a good looking, exciting girl, they also want somebody they can talk to, somebody who’ll be there for them when they need it. They want companionship, a friend as well as a lover. If you want to know how to earn his love, this is it. Build a friendship with him. Prove to him that he can trust you and that you are the one person who can pick him up when he’s feeling down. Above all, just make sure you enjoy your time together and that he enjoys it too. Sometimes just hanging out and talking is the best way to get to know somebody.

The way to a man’s heart is not through his stomach, or his wallet or his underpants. If you want to know how to earn his love then simply talking to him and being his friend is the best way to do it.

Source by Tina L. Jones

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How to Get a Thicker Penis in Under 10 Minutes a Day – Women Will Love You For Your Thick Manhood!

by sinnga kilam 0 Comments

It is indeed possible to get a thicker penis in under 10 minutes a day and in this article I would like to explain how. Firstly let’s look at why all women prefer a thicker manhood.

Us guys have it all wrong! Whenever the subject of penis enlargement comes up, we all start to obsess about having an 8 or 9 inch penis. The longer the better. However, were you aware that the most sensitive areas of a woman’s vagina are actually within the first 2-3 inches and also around the vaginal walls? So having a really long penis will not make that much of a difference.

In order to fully arouse and stimulate a woman to the point of orgasm you will need to get a thicker penis. Believe me when I tell you that the extra girth will make a HUGE difference. So how exactly do you make your penis larger and thicker in just 10 minutes a day? I would like to introduce you to 2 simple hand exercises that can help you achieve this goal.

1) Jelqing – Jelqing is a form of penis enlargement that has been used for hundreds of years. The actual exercise requires you to stroke your manhood with a milking-type action. First of all you will need the correct grip for all jelqing exercises. Form an O shape by touching your thumb and forefinger together on your right hand. The grip is exactly the same as when you give someone the OK sign.

Next attach this grip to the base of your penis and as close as you can get to the pubic bone. Keep your other 3 fingers in the air and out of the way. Then stroke down the shaft of your penis and stop just below the head. Then repeat this action immediately with your left hand. Each stroke should last for 3 seconds and you should perform 100 jelqs in total. That will take you exactly 5 minutes. Each week you should aim to add another 100 jelqs to get a thicker penis.

2) The Horse Squeeze – This penis enlargement exercise requires exactly the same grip as the jelq. So with your OK sign attached to your manhood, I want you to squeeze tightly. Now you should count to 5 and then squeeze your middle finger down. Once again count to 5 and then squeeze your ring finger down and so on until all your fingers are tightly wrapped around your penis.

Hold this “squeeze” for a total of 45 seconds and then relax. You should rest for 30 seconds and then repeat the exercise exactly the same as before. Take another 30 seconds rest and then repeat one last time. This should take a total of 4 minutes.

So there you have it, a total of 9 minutes exercise per day to make your penis larger. I would suggest that you add other exercises to your routine to make your manhood longer and also to increase your sexual stamina. However if you can keep this routine going for the next 4-6 weeks, you will get a thicker penis and the woman in your life will truly love you for the extra girth!

Source by James Birch

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How to Get Him to Text Back – Enticing Ways to Get Him to Reply to You Quickly! Read This Now

by sinnga kilam 0 Comments

Are you frustrated and mad at him for not replying to your messages? Have you ever stopped to wonder if you are doing the right thing by sending him a thousand messages in the first place? If you haven’t, then it is about time you did! These tips will help you to do the right thing and will even make him reply.

Don’t be persistent in messaging

Stop badgering him with your messages. He has started to take you and your messages for granted and will not bother replying to them as he knows that whether he does or not, you will still bombard him with more! If you stop sending him messages he will soon begin to wonder why and will become curious.

Stop sounding desperate

The fact that you are desperately trying to get him to respond to you will be obvious in the tone of your messages. This will make you seem even more clingy and he might pity you instead of want you! If you do want to message him once in a blue moon, you should make sure that you sound just friendly.

Be casual in your tone

If you are just casual and matter of fact in your messages, you will make him feel that you are getting over him and are just being friendly, that’s all! He will begin to miss having your undying and adoring attention and will try to get you interested in him again and that will make him reply to your messages.

Let him know what exciting things you are up to

It would do good if he began to see you as someone who is having the time of her life, not someone who is desperately trying to cling to the past. Let him know that you have your hands full and no time to waste and he will start to wonder who is getting to spend time with you these days. He will text back the next time you send him messages.

Send a message that seems like it was meant for someone else

This is a ruse that could put him on the spot and make a decision about you. If you send him a message that obviously looks like you meant it for someone else and sent it to him by mistake, he is going to wonder who the new guy in your life is. You could call the next day and apologize for the mistake. You can be sure he will start asking you questions.

Make him curious by being vague

One way to make him very curious about you is to be vague and mysteriously abrupt in your messages. Don’t let him know everything about you and make it seem like you are reluctant to let him know what’s going on in your life. Curiosity always kills the cat!

Don’t reply to his messages for a change

One thing he is not going to expect you to do is not reply to his messages. Since you have been plaguing him with desperate messages he feels that there is no way you are going to ignore his! Be silent for a change and don’t get in touch with him. Become unavailable and he will desperately want to know why!

Source by Krista Hiles

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Web to Print Software for Pet Clothes: How to Make the Most Out of It

by sinnga kilam 0 Comments

Nowadays, it isn’t uncommon to see dogs and other pets wearing tees, scarf, knit sweaters or other cute clothing. The variety of clothing choice available for pets is no less compared to people. There are several shops that provide clothes exclusively for pets. And we have definitely come across dogs wearing formals with ties, casual wear as well as wedding gowns. For pet lovers, dressing their pet is not just about making them look fashionable but also giving them a cozy and comfortable feeling.

If you have a dog that doesn’t mind dressing up for different occasions and loves to grab eye balls with a unique dressing style, why not order personalizable pet clothes from any one of the online stores using web-to-print software?

So now that you have decided to give it a go why not discuss about the ongoing trends when it comes to styling your dogs and what kinds of apparel can you design for them?

Occasion friendly costume

Your big day might remain incomplete without your favourite cherub walking by your side. To celebrate joyous occasions like weddings and parties, you would need some good looking clothes. You can dress your dog in the best of vests, tuxedos and dress. And it just gets better when you design your pet’s clothes. Web-to-print software has a lot of options with clipart, different fonts with effects as well as styles which help you to design the costume exactly the way you want. After designing, you can also have a preview of the costume to get an idea as to how it would look on your pet. Once you approve of the design, you can finalize and checkout.

Funny character costumes

Planning the big win for your pet in the next fancy dress competition? Make the most out of funny cartoon character t-shirts. You can embed the images of birds, animals, cartoons using the software. Not only that, you can also add funny quotes and one-liners to go along with it. Some software also provide with an option to upload your personalized design. So make the most out of it and ensure your pet’s victory!

Formals and casuals

Last but not the least, formal and casual clothing is the most common choice when it comes to dressing pets. You can give protection to your dogs by dressing them in jerseys, sweaters, shirts, t-shirts and sportswear. A product designer tool provides you with different colours, images and designs to choose from. There’s also a drag and drop option for an array of cliparts and themes so that you can finish the designing tasks in few clicks.

There are several pet styling websites online for you to get inspired from. So check them out and list down the styles and themes that would suit your pet. Once you are done with that, check out the best pet designing software online and start designing. It’s time to get compliments from onlookers, friends and family as to how adorable your baby looks!

Source by Pratik Shah

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5 Real Ways to Make Money Online

This has always been a great question, and there are many different schools of thought on this subject.

A person could argue products like software, eBooks, and virtual information are amongst the most marketable as they are easy to duplicate and have no shipping costs. It’s true a virtual product can absolutely simplify your post-sale process, however are they truly the best overall product strategy? In my opinion it all comes down to the demand, then the numbers. Calculate what price you can create or retain a product for and then calculate what price you can sell it for while keeping in mind advertising, shipping, and other expenses that fall between those two processes.

Determine your total costs from start to finish. I wouldn’t even consider selling a product or service that fetches me any less than 80 percent gross profit per unit, unless it had a great backend or up-sell strategy or some type of recurring subscription based profit model.

lf you find that managing inventory or working with suppliers and drop shippers is more slanted towards your personal experience then work with a product that feels comfortable with you, you will benefit from the familiarity. The importance of comfort might just be the most influential factor for me when choosing a product to wrap around your marketing. Many people want to sell online but have no idea what products to sell. In my experience selling something for profit alone with no personal passion can be a mistake and I have found that building an email list for marketing and growing your brand is a cheap effective way to get started quickly.

5 Products you can sell and make money using “email marketing”.

  1. Digital products and virtual services. Digital products are easy to duplicate, store, and ship digitally via email or file sharing service.
  2. Affiliate marketing programs. Many companies online look for enthusiastic individuals to resell their products or services. Scrolling to the footer of a business’s website will typically link to any affiliate program if offered. You can also search for specific affiliate programs that suit your needs.
  3. Trendy products that are in demand. Great way to let product buzz and word of mouth help your cause. The Google Trends tool will show you the current trends of your product ideas based on total search volumes. This can be a great way to determine what’s currently popular.
  4. Start your own business. Get creative and bring your ideas online with a website or product page selling your creations, products or services. Accepting payments is easy these days with services like PayPal and all you need to do is promote your website using email marketing.
  5. Freelance writing services, or create a blog. Writing can be an interesting and rewarding way to make money online. You can publish and sell eBooks, blog posts can generate revenue from ads or affiliate links, sponsors, or you can write about your current products for sale.

When sending email in large volumes always be sure you choose a true high volume, web-based email marketing software that can grow with your ongoing success.

Source by Rod Gray

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Patio String Lights – How to Make Your Own Using Tin Cans

by sinnga kilam 0 Comments

Making your own patio string lights can be a great craft for a cottage weekend or even a backyard slumber party campout. You will have to begin by asking friends, family and neighbors to collect and keep their used and emptied tin cans. Once you have received the desired amount of cans (preferably one for every bulb on your string of lights) you will need to clean them thoroughly and remove their paper labels. Now you are able to begin.

Here is what you will need:

1. Your collection of clean, label free cans

2. A few old towels

3. A hammer

4. A sharp nail

5. A pair of metal snips

6. At least one strand of outdoor lights

7. A pair of safety gloves and eye protection

Step One:

Begin by filling your tins with water and placing them in the freezer until frozen solid. Once the tins of water are frozen remove them from the freezer and lay them on the floor in the center of your old towel. Secure your tin by rolling the edges of the towel inward towards your frozen tin. The towel will help to hold your tin in place and will soak up the water as your tin thaws.

Step Two:

Now, put on your gloves and safety glasses. With a white grease pencil draw any design you’d like on your tin can. Remember, the design will be made by punching holes through the tin, so designs made of multiple dots are best. Some of the most common choices when making your own patio string lights are stars and moons since your lanterns will be enjoyed during the evening hours.

Step Three:

Begin placing your nail on your drawn dots and hammering small holes until your design is complete. Once you’re finished punching the holes you will need to draw an “X” shape on the bottom of each of your tins. Using your metal snips carefully cut out the lines need to form the “X” and fold the four triangle section back in toward the inside of the tin.

Step Four:

Remove the bulbs from your string lights and place a tin on each socket. Screw each bulb back into their socket, this will be what holds your lantern in place.

Step Five:

Wait until the sun goes down, pour a glass of wine, ice tea or hot cocoa and enjoy the fruits of your labor! You just made your very own tin can patio string lights!

Source by Ray Reed

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Speech Making – Reasons Why People Don't Listen

Making a speech seems simple. You speak, others listen. However this isn’t always the case, in fact one of the biggest challenges for speakers is getting their audience listen.

If you have to make a speech – you want it to be memorable and successful. If you understand why people don’t listen, you will be more successful at getting them to listen!

Here are nine reasons why people don’t listen to a speech.

1. Message overload.

If you are at a seminar and spend most of the day listening, you simply have too much information in your brain to retain all of it. Most presenters make the mistake – myself included – of putting too much content into their speeches.

2. Preoccupation.

Many in the audience are thinking about other issues – when is my pay due, what will I do on the weekend, I must finish that pressing business proposal etc.

3. Rapid thinking.

How often have you sat in the audience and your mind races ahead? We think at about 600 words per minute. On average, people talk at about 140 words per minute.

4. Effort.

Active listening is just plain hard work. When you’re actively listening, your respiration rate goes up and your heart starts to beat faster. Remember people can’t keep it up for long – so give them a break. Use some humour and audience interaction.

5. External noise.

This could be noise from another room you hear or visual noise. Take for example distracting gestures or appearance which can distract the listeners attention.

6. Hearing problems.

Fifty per cent of people have hearing problems. One of the things I learnt from working with the Better Hearing Association is to start a speech with “can everyone hear me clearly”.

7. Faulty assumptions.

The audience assumes you said something you didn’t.

8. Lack of apparent advantage.

The listener does not recognise the benefits. Always highlight the benefits for the audience.

9. Lack of training.

Did you ever take “Listening 101” at School or University. Like anything listening is a skill which must be practiced, whilst some people obtain the practice often others might not be used to attending professional seminars or listening intently for long periods of time.

Source: Adapted from “Looking Out, Looking In”, Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1993, p. 253.

Source by Thomas Murrell

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Tips on How to Grow Taller – 5 Tips to Increase Your Height Regardless of Your Age Or Gender

by sinnga kilam 0 Comments

Some people are just genetically engineered to be a little shorter than their peers. It’s okay to be short, but if you want to boost self-confidence and a little oomph to your stature, a few inches more wouldn’t hurt. Being tall also is a big deal when it comes to hitting it off with girls. It doesn’t matter if you’re the prototype of Shrek. Girls welcome guys who are a wee bit taller than the average.

Take note though this growth only happens until you’re 25 years of age. For women, it’s 21. If you’re way past the growing stage, there’s not much more you can do. But if you’re on your thirties already, chances are, you’re already married so it wouldn’t matter anyway.

Here are helpful tips on how to grow taller a few inches:

1. Practice the habit of drinking a glassful of milk daily. Make it three glasses if you will. But make sure you don’t drink all three glasses at once. Too much milk in your system at a given time would somehow hamper the absorption of vitamins and minerals into your body. When shopping around, select brands that specifically says something about natural growth in the label.

2. Make an appointment with a nutritionist. A licensed one is trained to assess the growth tendency of different people depending on their age and physical structure. He will know exactly what multivitamin you should take to speed up the process.

3. Don’t take sleep for granted. It is something that your body needs in order to sustain natural growth. Eight hours of sleep must observed by adults while ten hours is advised for children and teens. For a comfortable sleep, make sure your door is closed and that there is no annoying disturbance that could potentially wake you up in the middle of your sleep.

4. Exercise a lot. Only when your muscles and bones are stretched will you have even the remotest tendency to grow. If you’re bored with casual stretching exercises, go play basketball or volleyball and jump around as much as possible. Jumping is a good form of stretching, allowing the upward velocity and the downward gravity somewhat pull apart the joints and tendons of your body in order to facilitate growth.

5. Avoid masturbating every day. Masturbation can make you lose necessary growth nutrients, thereby getting in the way of your goals. This applies to both men and women. This is one of the unpopular tips on how to grow taller. The semen that you release during masturbation may contain essential growth elements that it would be such a loss to just let it out of your system. Instead, channel your sexual energy into exercising and you will find yourself getting taller by the minute.

Source by Casey Gentles

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