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F-A-B SELLING! (Features, Advantages And Benefits) What Are They And How Are They Different?

Let’s be blunt: most prospects are not necessarily any more interested in your product or service per se than you are in Bulgarian politics – until, that is, one of them has a tangible impact on either of your lives: the point is not to concentrate on the features to such an extent that you neglect to translate them into buying motives.

Nevertheless, it’s good to have a clear understanding the differences between features, advantages and benefits.

Features are the set, objective facts or characteristics of your product or service that remain the same whether the prospect buys or not.

Advantages are statements about what product or service can do or the function it performs but, as they are not directly linked to a specific customer need, they are far from being the whole story.

Benefits are statements which explicitly demonstrate how your products or service meets the needs of the prospect -describe the individual value the advantage has for this particular prospect as defined by his unique goals and priorities. The key is to focus on the selected features that offer a clear advantage to your prospect and link them his objectives, making the benefits crystal clear.

The more you can personalise the ‘benefit’ to appeal to your customer and tailor your message so it relates to his explicit needs, the more powerful the sales pitch. Get to your customer’s needs directly by asking questions about their problems, probing the potential effects and implications of using (or not) your product or service – which benefits are they looking for specifically?

This will allow you to step into the prospect’s shoes and gain insight into his specific, explicit needs and those areas that would produce genuine benefit -ask yourself as the client what’s in it for me? The focus of your communication should be on how your product or service can solve, address or improve on the areas of difficulty that the prospect outlined.

Your customers might want to know features, so that they can see what’s included in the price, but it’s the benefits that actually sell your product or service. Develop every product feature into a tangible benefit, an end result that satisfies a customer problem or need.

Top Tips

o Feature and advantage statements are useful in selling low value or transactional products/services, but ineffective with high value, complex sales.

o Benefit statements have a positively impact on the outcome of high value, complex sales.

o Only benefit statements which are directly relevant to the customer are of value.

o Benefit statements must address a specific need to be of value.

o The four types of benefits are: productivity gains, increasing revenue; reducing costs and enhancing image.

Source by Juliette Denny


Get Your Voice Out of Your Throat and Let Your Chest Do Your Talking

Through the years, I have been amazed at how many people are totally unaware that they have a richer, warmer, resonant, and even sexier speaking voice inside. Most people believe that the voice they are using out of habit is something they cannot change. Nothing could be further from the truth.

Unless you are already powering your voice from your chest cavity, you do have a better voice inside. There are some changes on the ‘before’ and ‘after’ video clips of my clients that are so dramatic you might think it was two different people speaking. The fact that it is on video however is the proof that indeed they are one and the same.

So how do get rid of your habitual voice and discover your ‘real’ one?

1. Learn to breathe diaphragmatically so that you can use your chest to do your talking thereby eliminating the wear and tear on your vocal folds (cords). If you suffer any form of vocal abuse, it will not go away on its own until you change this placement of your voice. Constant abuse will only get worse over time. Power your voice from your chest and you will be amazed at the difference in the immediate elimination of the soreness or pain you often feel after speaking in a loud volume of sound or just speaking for great lengths of time.

2. Discover the optimum pitch of your speaking voice. Individual to you, your optimum pitch will probably be lower than your habitual pitch which will make your voice sound more mature – not too old, not too young – ageless. In addition, you will find your voice continually improving with age.

Then, take the above 2 techniques and make them a habit so you don’t have to think about it anymore. You will sound better; you will probably look better; and, you most definitely feel better about yourself.

You cannot imagine the amazing changes that will occur in your life, both professionally and personally, just by allowing your chest to do your talking. It’s a marvelous feeling, the best means of controlling nervousness in any form of public speaking, and you will finally enjoy hearing yourself on your voicemail!

Source by Nancy Daniels


A Critical, Third Party Review of MLM Trainer Eric Worre

A Background on Eric Worre:

I first got a chance to meet Eric Worre in my first successful experience in MLM. Eric was one of the ‘Big Three’ leaders in the company I was involved with him in.

Mr. Worre is a unique person, to put it mildly, and always was an interesting person to be in business with. On the stage of major conventions, Eric tends to ask questions an listen more than he speaks. He plays the part of a celebrity interviewer, asking questions to clarify points that allow the finer points of Network Marketing success to come through in a way that otherwise would remain in darkness.

Eric Worre is a FANTASTIC leader, and I encourage you to get familiar with his training as much as you can.

So how does Eric Worre build his business?

Eric follows a traditional, word of mouth business model, and he reduces his training down to the simplest possible steps for his team. It’s hard to actually get Mr. Worre to train on anything other than 3 way calls, home meetings, and weekly events.

He won’t do it. In fact, I don’t know if he would remember this, but I heard him talking one day about how he keeps things ridiculously simple, and so I was around him later that day at a training convention, and I questioned him, attempting my best to get him to be complicated. He simply wouldn’t do it.

Eric will drill again and again ‘keep it simple’. Before I met him, I came from a long list of uplines and teams that seemed to try and build a business in the most complicated way they possibly could. (Which was horribly frustrating, because I didn’t know what I was doing)..

So are Eric’s business building techniques effective for all people?

Eric is one that freely admits that they simply do not. If you take a look at the facts over the last 60 years of MLM, it’s clear to most leaders that all training doesn’t work for everybody. Simply put – there are thousands of various ways to build a MLM business that are effective for different kinds of personalities.

Eric’s system gave me my first success in MLM, getting me over the initial hump of making more than a few thousand dollars a month – and I did it the traditional way through meetings, super saturdays, etc.

If I’m honest, though, it was hard for most people to learn and use Eric’s system. We were all a bunch of broke 25 year old college dropouts, and although I had a fairly large group (over 1000 people), that system simply doesn’t work well at all for my previous peer group. Quite simply, if I ever wanted to get my income over $5,000 a month in Eric’s group, I would have had to join the Chamber Of Commerce, go to Church 3X a week, maybe join The Rotary Club, and any other social group I could get involved with where I could meet people who had a larger sphere of influence than my own.

Also, I discovered after a time that I simply don’t enjoy spending all of my free time at meetings, on conference calls, and prospecting strangers. While I love to speak, the pressure in that group to do meetings every week and fill a huge room of people was enormous. I wanted a better way to do things, plain and simple (that I actually enjoyed).

So should you just forget anything that Eric’s ever said? Just so you know – Eric’s system was the first way I made money in Network Marketing. I simply will not be content with a measly five grand a month, however, and so I began searching for a more powerful, streamlined business system

…then I found cyperspace. It took some effort, training, and practice, but I learned how to promote myself online. Not only is it way more fun than all of that stuff I used to do, it works WAY better as well.

It was an empowering transformation (as you can imagine) when I started having people call me up, begging me to get involved in my business.

Simply put, does Eric Worre’s training work? Yes – But you know what? I would never, ever build a business in that way again. Simply put, I don’t care how much money that way would make me. After a time, I found out that it is just way more fun to market and promote yourself in a way that is attractive, fun, and empowering – sponsoring people who WANT to know what you do for a living..

I would not have it be any other way.

However, I’ve experienced the exact opposite. My income grew by five times in my first six months of online promotion.Today I consistently bring in 20-50 reps per month into my opportunity, and they are all REQUESTING to join.

Source by David Michael Wood


How to Control a Woman's Emotions And Make Her Emotionally Dependent on You

by sinnga kilam 0 Comments

Here is a highly unconventional technique that can be put to use to make girls fall in love with you in no time: be completely indispensable to them by being their sturdy rock. This means that you have to make girls emotionally dependent on you so that they will never even think about leaving you. Keep reading to discover how this can be done…

How To Control A Woman’s Emotions – And Make Her Emotionally Dependent On You (3 Simple Techniques)

Tactic #1. Be the dominator.

Girls are compliant by nature, but this is only true if they have great reasons to be. Show off your leadership qualities and make her comply with your wishes. You can begin by choosing where to go on every date and charm her into submission.

Tactic #2. Be the proverbial “man”.

Through centuries of social conditioning, girls have become naturally meek to male authority. You simply have to show that you are the man in your relationship in order to make your girl respond to you properly. If you have the power to read the female mind, you may discover that this is exactly what she wants – a leader she can follow.

Tactic #3. Be the conversation controller.

Whenever a girl begins to talk about past relationships, be sensible enough to turn away her attention when she starts talking about her past relationships. Allowing girls to reminisce about their exes while they are spending time with you will only ruin any chances you have of getting them into bed. Because of this, you need to be straightforward and instantly change the topic.

Dating happens to be a game. In order to win, you need to know several subtle techniques of seduction, such as fractionation, which can help you transform cold girls into loyal girlfriends in just 15 minutes.

Fractionation can put any girl of your choice under your spell. If you gain complete access to female emotions, you can keep total control of their responses toward you. Laid out in a simple step-by-step formula, fractionation is known to be a super strong seduction tactic which empowers any man to get the woman of his dreams.

Source by Derek Rake


Anti-Aging Tips – 3 Tips For Getting Rid of Neck Wrinkles

by sinnga kilam 0 Comments

We lose our youthful beauty as well as appearance because of aging. The reason behind this is the skin of these areas is very thin. The chances of formation of neck wrinkles increases with age and the skin on the area starts to sag. A small change in your diet will help you to get less wrinkles but the only solution for these wrinkles are right skin treatment and taking care of the skin on a daily basis. Under no circumstances should anyone propose the neck area to the sun without using protection. Also there is the need to moisturize and hydrate the skin with rich creams and this has to be done in daily basis.

Neck wrinkles have many causes, including the sun's rays, poor diet, not enough water, and smoking. Neck wrinkles, loose sagging skin on neck, and other appearance oriented examples of aging skin on the neck do not make a pretty picture. Here are some tips on how to get rid of neck naturally. You can follow these skin care tips for neck wrinkles to keep the skin around your neck looking youthful and wrinkle-free.


MAINTAIN THE MOISTURE LEVEL OF THE SKIN: As we age, our skin loses its elasticity and ability to retain its moisture level. Staying hydrated is very important; You can stay well hydrated by drinking water and other fluids. Since dehydration will make your neck lines and folds more noticeable, you should moisturize your neck regularly.

SMOOTH YOUR SKIN BY APPLYING NECK CREAM: An anti-aging cream can keep the deep lines away. Apply a rejuvenating anti-wrinkle cream specially produced for the neck. Use a nourishing neck wrinkle cream on your neck as well as your face regularly that helps skin recover during the night. With regular use of anti wrinkle neck cream, the skin around neck becomes silkier, smoother, and tighter. Doing it every night help to rejuvenate the skin and help bring back a more youthful look to your throat area.

MOISTURIZE YOUR NECK: Daily moisturizing will keep the neck skin hydrated, as wrinkles are more likely to appear on dry skin. After cleaning the neck skin, apply skin moisturizer, using an upward, circular motion. This home remedy for neck wrinkles can help slow the progress of neck sagging and wrinkling. The sun's rays could cause the appearance of deep neck wrinkles. Use sunscreen when you are exposed to sun for a longer period of time.

Building up the muscles in your neck is the key element to making wrinkle lines less similar. Try to do some neck exercises. It will help to tone the muscles of that area, while preventing or minimishing deep lines. Homemade anti-aging masks are the natural way for removing deep neck wrinkles. One homemade anti-aging treatment for removing wrinkles around neck is applying papaya and pineapple mask on the affected area. Another effective tip to get rid of wrinkles on neck is including omega-3 fatty acids in your diet. They allow the skin to regenerate collagen and acts as a sealer between the cells.

Taking steps to prevent the worsening of neck wrinkles may also help diminish the appearance of existing ones. Use the following guidelines:
• Drink plenty of water to hydrate your skin.
• Use some anti-wrinkle creams to add to the hydration levels on the outside.
• Apply sunscreen protection on your face and neck every time you go outdoors.
• Always keep your head straight and your chin up. Erect posture will help you to avoid neck wrinkles.
• A well-balanced diet promises fine lines on your face and neck.
• Performing facial exercises on the neck muscles can make them firmer, tighter, and more toned.

Source by Here Marshal


Tips for Embroidery on Knit Sweaters

by sinnga kilam 0 Comments

Sweaters are everywhere. Men, women, children and teenagers are donning these popular garments year-round. While a sweater is fashionable in itself, the addition of a rich-looking, embroidered design adds to the garment’s appeal and increases its value. Of course, getting that design on the sweater can sometimes be a bit tricky.

Because of its nature, sweater knits often create headaches for the embroiderer. Threads are “eaten.” Entire designs disappear. The fabric itself puckers and waves. Sometimes the design is even cut right out of the garment by the needle penetrations. Fortunately, you can avoid these potential problems and achieve high quality results.

These adjustments need to be made right from the beginning of any job. Having a well d design is essential in embroidering on sweater knits. You need to let your digitizer know beforehand that the design will be used on a sweater. Better yet, give the digitizer an actual sample of the fabric for testing purposes. Simply communicating with the digitizer can save you a great deal of trouble down the road.

There are a few tricks in digitizing for designs that will be stitched on knits. To stabilize the fabric and create a foundation for the design, try increasing the amount of underlay stitches put into a design. Also try to keep the design elements large and advises against attempting small, delicate details or fine lines. Instead of the usual logo composed of a symbol and lettering, why not advise your customer to try only a symbol? It is more understated, has more graphic punch-and is easier to produce. Once your design is digitized, it’s time to start stitching. By following a few guidelines, you should be able to produce top quality work.


Taking the time and effort to prepare a knit garment for embroidery can mean the difference between a great looking design and just plain shoddy work. At this stage, your primary goal is to stabilize the fabric. This can be accomplished with the combination of backing, dissipating spray adhesive and topping. When working with knits, you should always use a cut-away backing as opposed to tear-away. It’s a good idea to spray the backing with an adhesive before placing it on your garment. Gently press the backing to the garment. Make sure not to press too hard, as this could distort the ribs. If your design lacks a substantial amount of underlay, compensate by using some type of plastic or water soluble topping. For best results, lightly coat your topping with spray adhesive and then press it to the garment with the palm of your hand. By sandwiching the knit between the backing and topping, you’ve increased its stability. The adhesive spray helps prevent the garment from slipping while the machine is running.

Hooping tips

Because knit fabric is so stretchable, extra care should be taken when hooping for embroidery. Knits stretch in all directions. To avoid distorting the fabric, gently pull the knit in a vertical direction only.

Make certain the rib of the fabric is straight. If it’s placed in the hoop at an angle, it will cause your design to distort and pucker. Place the garment into your hooping board and carefully smoothing out the wrinkles. Then, gently press the top frame into the bottom. Again, make sure all the ribs are parallel to each other. The knit should be taut, but not so tight that the fabric is stretched out of shape.

Besides stretching the garment out of shape, hooping too tightly can cause other problems, especially with the finer knits. One embroiderer relates a hooping horror story. A customer had given him an expensive cashmere sweater to embroider. He quickly hooped the item, put it on his machine and stitched a handsome design. However, when the hoop was pulled apart, the entire area that had been framed fell from the sweater. He definitely learned a lesson about hooping that day! While this is an extreme example, a too tight hoop can cut the fibers of the knit and leave unsightly rings around the design that won’t disappear. Another factor to consider is the size of the hoop.

It’s best to match the hoop size as closely as possible to the design size. Some people like use an eight-inch hoop for a two-inch design. That’s not a good idea because a hoop that’s too large tends to cause knit fabric to pull and pucker.

Techniques for sewing

Once the garment is hooped properly, you’re ready to begin stitching your design. If you have a large order, it’s a good idea to get a sample of the fabric or garment you’ll be using and do a little testing. In this way, you can determine the best possible machine settings for the particular product. Always use a ball point needle on the knit garment. A regular needle cuts the threads of knit fabric and can even cut the stitched design away from the garment itself.

The size of the needle is dependent on the type of sweater knit. Fine knits require a size 9 or 10 ball point needle. Needle sizes 10 to 11 work best on medium knits. And, heavier knits make it necessary to work with 12 or 14 size needles. It’s also smart to slow down the speed of your machine a bit to get better results.

Hopefully, by following these suggestions, you will be able to produce handsome embroidery on today’s popular sweaters.

Source by John Battista


Evolution of Urdu Language

“Language is the blood of the soul into which thoughts run and out of which they grow. ~Oliver Wendell Holmes”

Meaning of language

To understand the specific language we need to understand what exactly language means. For a layman I would call language a medium to communicate with people. Comprehensively language is not just the exchange of words rather it is communication of feelings, expressions, and beliefs. This might be in form of words, symbols, signs, signals, compositions of music notes or even vague or clear sounds.

History of languages

History of language starts from the beginning of evolution of mankind. In different times the modes of communication among the mankind has been different. Starting from the thought process to the molding words to express refers to language. It includes the words that are unsaid and expressed by actions. Therefore history of languages can be studied in detail by the study of nations and tribes. There has been a strong impact of languages on the cultural behavior of nations all over the world. Languages have evolved ever since the first sign of life on earth. About 200000 years ago different modes of communication were transformed in vocalization or speech. Later about 30000 years ago mankind developed symbols. This further revolutionized into writing about 7000 years ago.

Evolution of languages

“It is perfectly safe to attribute this development [of innate language structures] to “natural selection”, so long as we realize that there is no substance to this assertion, that it amounts to nothing more than a belief that there is some naturalistic explanation for these phenomena.” [Noam Chomsky, Language and Mind, 1972, p. 97]

We cannot trace back in time that a certain language was abruptly adapted or created. Languages were formed and changed gradually. Languages have rapidly changed as well. The greatest reason of change in language is due to socialization and intersection. Strongly interactive cultures show rapid changes. The cultures which are isolated in a tribe or in a geographical area show a slow change in language. If there is a lack of interaction there is a lack of adaptation of values and behaviors from other cultures.

Language and culture

If man would not have been interacting withother civilizations and culture there would have no development of language. Language is not the invention of isolation; rather it is the creation of socialization. For every developing, developed or grown culture there has been an evolution likely.

Urdu language

The story of Urdu starts from the times of Mughals. The armies of the Mughals belonged to different ethnic backgrounds having different dialects. Their languages evolved into a molded form of a new language which we call Urdu in the present time. Urdu is a derivative of a number of languages which were spoken by the army of the Mughals. These soldiers were:

  • Turkish
  • Arabs
  • Pathans
  • Balochi
  • Afghans
  • Persians
  • Rajputs
  • Jats

The word Urdu is derived from a Turkish word that means army. This is the reason we call Urdu the language of army or lashkari zuban.

Evolution of Urdu Language

The society in which a language is spoken decides its evolution, development and recognition. Evolution in the language Urdu has resulted due to the interaction of different dialects, invasions and conquests. Urdu was evolved in the following phases:

• The indo- Aryan family language includes Urdu as well. The historic background of this rich language originates from Saur Senic Prakrit. Sanskrit was evolved to form Saur Senic Prakrit. Later Saur Senic Prakrit was influenced by a number of Hindi dialects.

• Then comes the evolutionary phase, this was affected by the literature of Insha. Then it started to take the form a picture of a new language that we call Urdu today. This was the time when Urdu and Hindi was differentiated. The cultural impact was that the Muslims in the subcontinent either spoke Urdu or Farsi and the Hindus spoke Hindi (Khari Boli and Devanagari). There was a clear difference in the two languages as Urdu had certain words of Arabic and Persian in it which Sanskrit did not have.

• After the invasion of the Muslims in the subcontinent Persian was made the official language of the subcontinent. Later Urdu became the official language of the states ruled by Mughals. This laid a strong impact on the culture of India and further revolutionized the language to give a new form.

  • Urdu started to evolve after 1193 AD.

• Invaders of the subcontinent effected Urdu language. These were Arabs, Persian and Turks. Urdu has Persian words in it.

• Later the British rule in the subcontinent words of English also became a part of it. This change was not that obvious due to the clash with their rule.

Source by Asad Asrar


Women in Colonial Latin America

The role of women in colonial Latin America was very much determined by what racial group and social class they were born into. In her book, The Women of Colonial Latin America, Susan Migden Socolow identifies additional factors that caused differences in women’s lives. These other factors include “demography, life cause, spatial variations, local economy, norm and reality, and change over time” (Socolow 1).

Socolow contends that among these additional variables, demography was the most important. This is due to the fact that the “ratio of men to women could enhance or limit women’s choices” (Socolow 2). The experiences of women also changed as they grew older and moved into different roles in life, e.g. from childhood to marriage to widowhood. The economy of the area where the women lived also had an effect on them, since women in a more prosperous area (especially elite women) lived more comfortably than their counterparts in less affluent areas. Socolow argues that these women did not always follow the social ideal of women imposed by the patriarchal society, and of course there were different ideals for each race and class of women. And lastly, these ideals of women, in some instances, changed over time.

The social ideal for Iberian women, in the Old World and the New, was strongly influenced by the Islamic tradition, which was to keep the females cloistered in the home. Female virginity at the time of marriage also had an effect on the family’s honor and was strictly monitored. This was especially true of the women in the Spanish elite, although many women did find ways to evade their chaperones to meet their lovers, as evidenced by the number of abandoned Spanish children. This cloistering of Iberian women was both a blessing and curse; while they did not have freedom to move around as the lower class women did, they did escape the social stigma attached to women who did appear on the streets. Also these Iberian women were not expected to work, at least not outside the home. Elite women did no work at all, other than supervising the work of the household servants and slaves. Iberian women also benefited from laws such as marriage and inheritance laws that were not extended to the other racial groups and social classes.

The role of women in pre-conquest Latin America varied according to the ethnic group she belonged to, but many native societies “controlled female sexuality in ways strikingly similar to the Spanish” (Socolow 19). Unlike Spanish inheritance and property laws, “generally land was held only by men” but women could own movable property (Socolow 21). Also like the Spanish, indigenous peoples had a strict sexual division of labor, although their views of what was women’s and men’s labor differed from Spaniards, and even from region to region.

After the arrival of the Spaniards, the role of indigenous women changed dramatically. The indigenous elite women became attractive marriage candidates to non-elite Spanish men, because these women brought increased social status and wealth to the marriage. Elite Spanish men (the ones that participated in the conquest) took indigenous elite women as concubines, but usually did not marry them. Non-elite women had a more difficult time as they were abused sexually and economically by the Spanish conquerors.

Mestiza women (those born from Spanish-Indian unions) also were potential marriage partners, especially those “who inherited from their conquistador fathers” (Socolow 37). Socolow contends that the mestizas’ “wealth and perceived social status overcame any possible problems associated with legitimacy and race” (Socolow 37). Many poor mestizas became concubines to the Spaniards, until Iberian women became numerous in Latin America. As Latin America became more settled, the mestiza women found “their acceptance into Spanish society increasingly difficult” (Socolow 38).

Unlike Iberian women, most indigenous and mestiza women were forced to work in order to survive and pay their tribute tax. Women who appeared in public frequently were suspected of being immoral and lacking in honor. Employment outside the home was most usually an extension of female duties inside the home; that is, the women worked as domestic servants, midwives, “or self-employed washerwomen, candlemakers, laundresses, cleaning women, seamstresses, weavers, embroiderers, nurses, and cooks” (Socolow 119).

Although indigenous women were exploited sexually and economically, they did possess some legal rights against abuse, which were denied to enslaved women, i.e. African women. These women were considered property and, as such, had “even less power to resist the sexual advances of their masters than did Indian women” (Socolow 134). Although there were laws to protect slaves from abuse, in the few instances where a slave woman filed a complaint, it was usually dismissed because the courts “gave precedence to a white man’s testimony” (Socolow 134).

However, enslaved women did enjoy some rights and privileges. In many circumstances, they were allowed to sell their labor in the towns and keep some of their earnings for themselves. This allowed them the opportunity to save money to buy their freedom. Other slave women could achieve manumission by forming sexual liaisons with their owners. Because of these relationships, many enslaved women were the heads of the households, since paternity for the mulatto offspring was rarely acknowledged. Slave women were encouraged to marry by the Spanish crown and the Catholic Church, although most of their white owners opposed this since it tended to make selling the slave more difficult. However, some slaves did marry but these were usually the slaves of “persons with higher social status” (Socolow 135).

The convents in Latin America offered some freedoms for Spanish women during the colonial times. Many elite women whose parents did not want to or could not provide a dowry for her were encouraged to become a nun. At this time, prospective nuns had to be white and have “purity of blood” (Socolow 94). The calced convents required a dowry be given to the convent to support the woman; poor Spanish women were “given special licenses to beg for alms in order to amass the requisite white-veil dowry” (Socolow 96).

The convent was structured hierarchically, consisting of black-veil nuns (who were the elite women) and white-veil nuns. The discalced convents did not require dowries, but did ask for a “yearly income to support the nun” (Socolow 97). The calced convents allowed nuns with property to manage their holdings also, which was usually not allowed in the outside community. Nuns were allowed to have slaves and servants in the convents with them. The convents also had educational opportunities for women that they were not encouraged to pursue in the colonial society. The convents became a refuge for women and girls “in need of protection, shelter, and support regardless of their marital state” (Socolow 103). In later times, convents designed for other races and classes were opened in Latin America, despite the opposition of the elite Spanish nuns.

Many changes occurred during these women’s lives, but the level of change was very closely determined by what race and class she belonged to. During the Enlightenment period in Europe, the education of women became more popularized. However in colonial Latin America, this education was confined to elite women and only involved education in domestic responsibilities with just enough reading and writing so that they could understand their religious studies. The lower classes remained largely illiterate.

Socolow, Susan Migden. The Women of Colonial Latin America. Cambridge University Press, 2000.

Source by Mary Arnold


How to Cure Stammering – What is the Root Cause?

Learning how to cure stammering was something that was top of my priority list not long ago. It was something I had suffered with since early childhood but I always assumed I would grow out of it; however as an adult I continued to suffer badly with speech. Read on to learn what I did to speak fluently and with confidence for the first time in my life and how you can do it too.

The main problem when learning how to cure stammering was actually coming to terms that there was no cure. After going back and forth to my doctor who kept making me do these silly speaking exercises that never really helped, I began to think that maybe I would be stuck with this condition for the rest of my life.

Growing up as a teenager with a stutter is probably one of the worst things a guy can go through, especially because other kids can be so cruel. I suffered badly with a confidence problem because of my stutter and this made it much harder to meet new people and make new friends. My social life was pretty poor, not to mention my lack of any type of success with girls! I mean what girl want’s to be with a shy, low confident stuttering guy anyway?

I knew that this was something I wanted to get rid of completely, not just learn to control, I wanted total fluency. I remember my doctor telling me to speak slower, so I did for a while. OK it may have helped a little bit but it made me sound like I was some sort of thick idiot! I didn’t want that, I wanted to speak normally like everybody else!

So I stopped going to see this doctor and instead went about trying to find out how to cure stammering my own way. After doing a lot of reading I realised that that the fact I was very shy and maybe even had a mild form of social anxiety didn’t help my problem. I discovered that I had to attack the root cause of my stutter.

In order to learn how to cure stammering I had to build up my broken confidence, and this is where it all begins. I met up with others stutterers and we discussed our problems together which really helped and we began to build our confidence with meeting new people and trying to be more open with people.

Source by Thomas Davey-Clarke


How to Change Your Accent – Let's Talk About Vowels

When looking to soften your accent, it is at first important to understand that it is no mean feat. The sounds you use to create your words and speech, are hard wired into your brain, when you speak, you are usually thinking about what you are saying, or trying to find the correct words to express yourself articulately, not about the sounds you are going to use to formulate the words.

When you decide you would like to soften your accent, you are embarking upon another kind of journey, that of putting new sounds into your head to make up old words, and so in order to use them, you now have to think before you speak, probably in a very different way from how you are used to!

One of the central features of changing your accent, is the vowel sounds, and this is because different languages have different vowel sounds, and it is the vowel sounds that are the building blocks of the words. Even if you have lived in England for twenty years, if you have never consciously or unconsciously learned the new vowel sounds, then you will be using your native languages vowel sounds, and so you will have retained an accent.

Each vowel sound requires a very specific physiological position. So if you are used to making a sound in your language, which is close, but not exactly the same as the English sound, then you will be likely to use it, instead of the accurate sound. Often these vowel sounds fall in between two of our English sounds, and this leads to confusion and misunderstanding. How annoying! If only all languages shared the same vowel systems, it would make life a whole lot easier!

(It is important to note that the vowels are only one component of changing your accent, there are two others. Consonants, are the second factor. And rhythm, stress and intonation in words and sentences, are the third. But in this article we will stick with vowels, more on the others later!)

As we mentioned, the vowels can be thought to be the building blocks of words. They contain the energy or the emotion of the word, as in a sense they come straight from the gut, say ahhh, and now say oooh can you see what I mean? Even on their own they express human emotions! All of them are expressed with an open mouth, the tongue and lips and jaw in a specific position. The consonants then, can be think of containing them in a sense, as all the consonants (apart from H) are made with contact somewhere in the mouth. So vowels are open sounds, and consonants make contact. Once you think of the vowels as containing the emotion of the word, you can begin to understand where actors get their power from, or how politicians use rhetoric and language to provoke emotion. Listen to Kenneth Brannagh doing a Shakespeare speech for example, his drawn out vowels are used specifically to create emotion in the listener. We love this one, on YouTube.

Now this brings us to another important feature of vowels. In Received Pronunciation (which is the official terminology for neutral English, or Queens English) we have twelve main vowel sounds, and these are divided into two groups, long vowels and short vowels. The long vowels must be made long enough, or else can easily get mixed up with their shorter neighbours. the sound Ahhh for example, is a long vowel sound. Its short neighbour, is Uh (as in hut). To make both these sounds, the jaw is dropped, and there is no smile, no width to the mouth. The “AHHH” is the sound you make if you go to the doctors and he wants to see your tongue. Try it in front of the mirror, you should be able to see your tongue! The “UH” sound is the same position, just that it is shorter so the jaw doesn’t actually need to drop quite as much. Make the two together “AHHH” “UH” “AHHH” “UH”. This should involve almost exactly the same position for both, and a nice open mouth, and flat tongue.

Good. Now let’s try it with words. “HEART, HUT, HEART, HUT” or “CALF, CUFF, CALF, CUFF”. “CALM, COME, CALM, COME”

It is important to get the length of the vowel, because that is the only factor which separates it from its neighbour in many words. Not just this, in the length of the vowel, lies the soul, or the aroma of the word. Make it too short, and the word feels empty. Hear the difference between the word hut and heart. Say heart with its full length, and it sounds beautiful and has the potential for poetry, “My heart is bursting”. Get it too short, and you’ve got a rather unromantic statement: “my hut is bursting”

Get the length, and this conveys to your listener that you understand the intricacies of English. Truly, it is a short cut to giving a sense to your listener that you really understand the language in all its complexities.

What you also might have noticed from the examples above, is that there are all kinds of spellings for the sounds. This is important, and often comes as a shock for the new student looking to change their accent. The spellings are not so helpful. In the word HEART, the letters E,A,R spells the sound AHHH. In the words CALF, and CALM, the AHHH sound is spelt with A,L. Similarly the UH sound is spelt sometimes with the letter “U” and other times with the letter “O”.

A little confusing, each sound does have a limited number of possible spellings. This can be helpful, but what the new student learns quite quickly, is that while spellings can act as a little bit of a guide, their ear, and listening skills are their new best friend.

Source by Emma Serlin