MLA (Modern Language Association) is a cite style which is most commonly for papers within the liberal arts and humanities.
Citing sources in the text
Using MLA cite style, referring to the works of other authors in your research paper should be done with a parenthetical citation. When referring to other works, the source should be in parentheses after the quote or paraphrase.
Victor Hugo stated that what people say about themselves has an influence on their lives and their destinies (1).
Victor Hugo stated that what people say about themselves “has as much influence on their lives, and particularly on their destinies, as what they do” (1).
Victor Hugo, in his work Les Miserables, mentioned the relation of thoughts and destinies (1).
Works Cited page
In your research paper, you must have a Works Cited page at the end. All of the sources included in this page must match with the works cited that you mentioned in your text.
General rules of Works Cited page:
It should start on a new page.
Put a space after each entry.
The indention of the entry should be a hanging indent.
List the entries alphabetically by the author’s last name.
Use italics for titles of longer works like books and magazines.
Use quotation marks for shorter works like articles, poems, stories.
Use page numbers when necessary (especially when citing a journal).
Include the medium of publication: Print, Web source, Film, CD-ROM, DVD
It’s not required to include URLs but if publisher requires it, you can include the URLs in angle brackets after your entry.
Capitalize each word for titles of works.
Do not capitalize prepositions/conjunctions unless they are the first word of the title/subtitle.
Examples of citations
The basic format for the citation is:
Lastname, Firstname. Title of Book. City of Publication: Publisher, Year of Publication. Medium of Publication.
LaRocque, Paula. The Book on Writing: The Ultimate Guide to Writing Well. Oregon: Marion Street Press, 2003. Print.
If no author is available:
The Book on Writing: The Ultimate Guide to Writing Well. Oregon: Marion Street Press, 2003. Print.
You can easily just change the medium of publication to Online, Kindle, etc.
LaRocque, Paula. The Book on Writing: The Ultimate Guide to Writing Well. Oregon: Marion Street Press, 2003. Online.
The first given name should be typed in the last name, first name format but next name should be in the first name last name format.
Ingermanson, Randy and Peter Economy. Writing Fiction for All. New York: for All, 2009. Print.
Three or more authors:
For books with three or more authors, you may list only the first author followed by “et al.”
Ingermanson, Randy, et al. Writing Fiction for All. New York: for All, 2009. Print.
When citing only one volume, include the volume number after the title. If there is a translator, add the number after it.
Albertini, Luigi. The Origins of the War of 1914. Trans. Isabella Massey. Vol. 1. New York: Enigma Books, 2005. Print.
When citing more than one volume, include the total number of volumes.
Albertini, Luigi. The Origins of the War of 1914. Trans. Isabella Massey. 3 vols. New York: Enigma Books, 2005. Print.
If each volume has its own title, cite the book as if each volume is an independent publication.
Rowling, J.K. Harry Potter and the Sorcerer’s Stone. London: Scholastic Paperbacks, 1999. Print.
Rowling, J.K. Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows. London: Scholastic Paperbacks, 2009. Print.
Chapter of a book:
If different from the author or editor of the complete work, refer to the complete work with the word “By.”
Chilson, Peter. The Border. The Best American Travel Writing 2008. Edited By Anthony Bourdain. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2008. 44-51. Print.
The basic format:
Author(s). “Title of Article.” Title of Journal Volume. Issue (Year): page(s). Medium of publication.
Dolby, Nadine. “Research in Youth Culture and Policy: Current Conditions and Future Directions.” Social Work and Society: The International 6.2. (3008): 44-49. Print.
Moon, Michael and Eve Kosofsky Sedgwick. ” Queers in (Single-Family) Space.” Assemblage 24. (1994): 44-49. Print.
Three or more authors:
You may list only the first author followed by “et al.”
Moon, Michael, et al. “Queers in (Single-Family) Space.” Assemblage 24. (1994): 44-49. Print.
Pianin, Eric. “Use of Arsenic in Wood Products to End.” Washington Post. 13 Feb. 2009: A11. Print.
If it is a local publication, make sure to include the city name and state in brackets after the newspaper title.
Pianin, Eric. “Use of Arsenic in Wood Products to End.” Washington Post. 13 Feb. 2002. Web. 4 May 2009.
Basic format (Print):
Author(s). “Title of Article.” Title of Periodical Day (if applicable) Month Year: page(s). Medium of publication.
Goldberger, Paul. “Machines for Living: The Architectonic Allure of the Automobile.” Architectural Digest October 1996: 82. Print.
Use n.p. if there is no publisher name given and n.d. if no publishing date is available.
Wyman, Bill. “Tony Soprano’s Female Trouble.” Salon.com. 19 May 2001. Web. 26 May 2001.
Make sure you include the date of access because web sites are updated often. Information available today may no longer later on.
Including a URL is optional but if a URL is required by your publisher or editor, include the complete address for the site.
Use n.p. if no publisher name is available and n.d. if no publishing date is given.
Web Master/ Author (if available). Name of Site. Version number. Name of company/establishment/institution/organization affiliated with the site (sponsor or publisher), date of resource creation (if available). Medium of publication. Date of access.
Financial Accounting Standards Board. Version 1.0. Accounting Foundation. 30 Dec. 2009. Web. 27 Apr. 2009.
“Board Activities.” Financial Accounting Standards Board. Accounting Foundation. n.d. Web. 27 Apr. 2009.