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Principles of Speech Communication

Speech making is perhaps one of the innate abilities of man, irrespective of one’s citizenry, or ethnic affiliations. Yet many people speak without understanding that it is a special ability without which communication between people and groups would not be possible.

Speech communication differs from normal day to day talking in which one speaks sporadically without considering ethics and skills. However, it is similar to every day communication in that they are both driven by the aim to communicate meaningfully.

Speech making is an organized communication aimed at sharing specific message about a given subject to create impact towards solving human problems.

This article provides guidance in the following areas:

Types of speech

Sages/steps in the speech making process and

Structure of a speech

Types of Speech

The onus remains squarely, on every speech maker to identify the type of speech most suitable to his/her purpose. For emphasis, it should be known that the aim of your delivery should be the sole factor dictating the style/type of speech you should choose to use.

Generally, there are, for conveniences, sake, four basic speech types, viz:

• Argumentative speech

• Persuasive speech

• Educative speech and

• Informative speech.

Argumentative Speech Type

Arguments imply elaborate presentation of all perspectives to an object or a subject of discussion, before settling down for the most applicable option. What comes out of an argument as most acceptable may not necessarily be truer, or better than other options, but the process of arguing makes it best, when compared to the others. This is why one choosing this type must bear in mind that it is his/her approach to it, and the ability to convince that determines the success or failure of the entire process.

While this may be closely related to persuasive essay, the dissimilarity lies in using points to convince at all cost.

To argue therefore, the speech maker needs to clearly and exhaustively raise every point of the issue and state facts about it. And this statement of facts is the “why” of the validity or not of your argument.

Persuasive Speech Type

As the name indicates, this type of speech is meant to stimulate a favourable disposition towards the subject of your concern or to appeal to audience to see it your way and act as you desire.

Companies, individuals and Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs) that depend on project grants are often required to their proposals in brief, before forums of grant agencies. In doing this, they are expected to give brief, straight-to-point run down of what they propose to do to achieve goal, if given grant. This summary must necessarily include a statement of methodology and justification why it has to be your proposal, and not that of another. You must convince that using so and so method, you will be able to achieve set goals within the specified time, without waste of resources and this, you must do without doubt.

A high point worthy of emphasis is that to persuade, a speech maker must JUSTIFY why you are convinced that your method is most suitable to deliver best result. Your entire exercise will be meaningless if it fails to provide justification.

Also, students defending their research projects/thesis/dissertations ought to bear this in mind, as they will at one time or another, need to persuade their tutors I favour of their work.

Educative Speech Type

Although teaching in a class room situation requires more than speech making skills, it would do you well as a professional teacher, haven undergone training in the profession, to add these to your skills. As one who teaches in a school or a religious organization, one makes speeches often, both officially and otherwise.

Advertising agencies as well make use of this type of speech as product display demonstration to teach prospective consumers of a new product a step – by – step approach to using it.

An educative speech provides a comprehensible how-to-do-it guide to given subjects and must be done carefully to avoid confusing consumers/students/audience/congregation.

Informative Speech Type

The aim of this class of speech is to make known. This may come in presentable form in which the speech maker delivers it to audience or may be a press release. Whichever the case, both the writer and giver of speech must choose words carefully in order not to mislead, as the aim is to give accurate, unmistaken information as at press conference, organizational report forums, annual general meetings, state of the affair reviews etc.

Whether as government official, a politician or celebrity wishing to tell subordinated, colleagues or fans and the mass media something, this type of speech serves you best, as it equally serves the technology company wishing to inform its market of its newest innovation.

Security agencies and Public Relations Executives of all manner of corporate entities should be versed in this type of speech, as they will find it useful in the course of their careers.

Stages in the Speech Making Process

As already stated in the introduction, why you make speech is to communicate towards an end. Thus, your speech can only be seen as a success if the aim is achieved at the end of the day. To achieve an aim, professional speech communication follows a procedure, which is here written as the stages/steps in the speech communication process. They include:

• Research: If you are to speak, it means that there is someone you are to speak to, about something, something of importance to both of you, and at a given time and place. Your first responsibility is to FIND OUT what it is you are going to talk about. Whatever it is, you must study it to know far more than you will need to talk about and in this case, it is necessary to preempt the likely questions your audiences are to ask, and provide answers in the speech you make.

where and when necessary, consult with people such as experts, who have better technical understanding of the subject than you and to these, pose ALL your questions and let their answers be the knowledge with which you confront the exercise, as these answers should be the basis of the speech you present. In doing this, you should avoid stating the obvious. By this I mean elements that can easily be deciphered and understood should not be your primary aim to explain, rather you will do more good to seek out areas that are not likely to be understood at first glance by the lay man and on these, place your emphasis.

If for instance your speech is a political manifesto, it will be more profitable to describe in detail, what you intend to do to solve certain societal problems and your conduct in office, should you be elected, than to dwell on the might of your political party or on the electioneering process – whoever your audience are already know how to vote and how strong your party is but even if they don’t, there are people stationed to teach them those.

If on the other hand your concern is a product/service as a PRE/Advertiser, or an issue intangible as those handled by spiritual leaders and programme facilitators, seek out beforehand, opinions and opposing views about the product/service/issue. Be sure to find out details about the product/service/issue as to how it functions or implications of every standpoint in an issue. It is only this detailed understanding of subject that places you above your audience to be able to grant answers to their every question, including the ones they are not able to ask.

When you have satisfactorily understudied the subject of your presentation, you should as well endeavor to study the people to whom you will be speaking. This may require going the extra mile to study the various groups of people likely to be present at your presentation as well as their depth of understanding of the subject. Also, their depth of understanding of the language of communication is of importance, as this helps your
diction for proper understanding.

You may as well, need to take a closer look at the place and time of your presentation. Though this may not be of same relevance as the first two, but is advisable because the place and time of an event contribute to a large extent, to the atmosphere of the event and in effective communication, the atmosphere is as important as the message itself as it colours the meaning of a message. This is why “good morning” at a time may be a greeting and at another time, a disturbance, as “yes” may mean yes at time but mean “no” at other times.

• Speech Writing: A well-researched speech may often end up poorly delivered if it is poorly documented, as many speech makers find the Read Only Strategy (ROS) more convenient than any other method. For a speech to be remarkable, its research, documentation and delivery must be sufficiently mastered.

Whether commissioned to write a speech for someone else to deliver or not, speech writing requires an interplay of excellent writing skills controlled by specific facts gained through research conducted at the initial stage with appropriate and accurate choice of words and illustrations, analogies etcetera.

Here are the basic formats of speech writing: the scripted speech, the semi-scripted speech, the outline speech and the unscripted format.

Scripted Speech: Earlier I mentioned ROS (Read Only Strategy) which is my description for a speech that is pre written and delivered verbatim unfortunately, this leaves no room for improvisation thus, where the speech writer is different from its presenter, the latter may have little or no idea about the technicalities of the subject of discussion, as he/she only read what is on paper. In this case, questions asked pose a great challenge to the presenter and may often be a source of embarrassment. A person delivering speech using ROS, without sufficient rehearsal may get pronunciations wrong and dodge questions at the end of the exercise as politicians do, because they are hardly involved in the creation of their speeches. However, this is the most used type of speech, practiced by political icons and celebrities because of its convenience.

The hugest merit of this is the convenience and the fact that individuals who are extremely shy or incompetent can hide away their weaknesses behind the paper already written for them. Also, the speech presenter may not need to have a deep knowledge of the subject, provided the writer of the speech does a good job. It is of advantage to persons who make many speeches within limited time and have little or no time to rehearse.

Notwithstanding, the problem with ROS is that it leaves the audience bored, as the speech maker is buried in the paper rather than keeping contact with the people to whom the presentation is being made.

The Semi – Scripted Speech Format: a speech is semi – scripted when only the principal lines of thought are written down, leaving the rest to be done on the spot of delivery. The preacher in a religious event may for example, write down a theme and scriptural texts while leaving the connected sentences to the process of delivery.

This method, a combination of ROS and improvisation proves beneficial when the speech writer is the same as the one to delivers. Otherwise, it becomes almost impracticable to deliver a semi – scripted speech prepared by somebody else. Where it is feasible, the writer and presenter must necessarily require massive effort at rehearsals which may not always be forth coming.

Out – Line Speech Format: Highly flexible and creative method that only notes in sequence, key points while leaving connected sentences to the delivery point. The advantage of this lies in the fact that where the atmosphere does not permit certain lines of thought or use of language, the speech maker changes direction. And because it is outlined rather than scripted, prevailing circumstances, at event venue, such as mood, time and language suitability are easily manageable. However, this method is most successful where the speech writer is the speech maker or where the latter has equal in-depth knowledge of subject and shares similar views with the former.

Unscripted Speech Format: This, otherwise referred here as improvisation or impromptu, is a speech format that requires no prior writing at all. Its success solely depends on the speech maker’s ability to improvise, that is, to create instantaneously, a spontaneous response to the situation. This, experience has shown, is the most effective speech style that does not fail to take audience along, as it is a child of circumstance.

Often you are asked to provide a repertoire or vote of thanks without warning. Using this format, you get your data from the prevailing circumstance and must immediately become a millionaire in thinking and in language if your audiences are of the millionaire class or you can be a road side mechanic if those are the people you are to communicate to.

The problem with this is that for beginners, improvisation could be challenging, as it requires tact and a lot of self-confidence.

• Rehearsals: After your documentation, the next stage is rehearsals. This simply means a trying out of yourself, a practice simulating the actual presentation you will be doing.

When doing this, critique your eye contact, facial expressions, gesticulations and general comportment. While practicing in front of your mirror may not be exactly similar to doing it in front of a thousand people, it gives you an idea of your look and performance and allows you to improve on those areas. You may like to present to your friend, spouse or kin to have their inputs.

• Speech Presentation: The essence of all the activities carried out from stage one is to achieve a remarkable presentation, such as would leave a desired impact by achieving the goal pursuant of which the speech was meant to be made. It therefore cannot be over-emphasized that this is the most vital aspect of the entire exercise, as it is the only thing people see and know about. Audiences do not follow you to your closet to see that you have researched your piece well but they will decide whether or not you have done well once you have delivered. For this reason, I like to say that it is better to conduct a poor research, do a poor documentation but superb presentation rather than having it the other way round.

To aid your performance in this regard, a couple of problems have been identified and solutions proffered here:

Overcoming Stage Fright: The incidence of stage fright is one menace too many that ruins otherwise, a remarkable speech. Your ability to manage this is as important as the other elements in the process involved, as your audience are not lenient, but are always looking for loopholes to capitalize on in unmaking your effort.

Ironically, everyone has some level of stage fright. The only difference being that some see the high tensed atmosphere and the rapid beating of their hearts as a positive force that complements their strength of delivery, while others fret at it.

What constitutes stage fright is fear; fear of the many eyes gazing at you, possibly “dissecting” and finding fault in whatever you are telling them, what you wear and the entirety of your being. Surprisingly, all this is more imagined than real, as audience hardly have any doubt until you give them a reason to. When you give the impression that you are in control, they accept that you are and thus, look up to you for answers.

Your appearance and perhaps gesticulations which you may have seen as errors become model to be emulated. This is why you must make your fear work for you.

There are several tricks to achieving this, two of which are suggested below:

Ice-Breaking – this refers to a ploy of ventilating tension rising from high expectation and an aura of formality. Audience expecting or rather, awaiting your presentation are kin and formal. This formality exerts more pressure on you, as you feel intense need and anxiety to deliver. In extreme cases, this rais
es doubts inn you as to whether you can satisfy them or not so you begin to stammer, jump words on the speech or add nonexistent words to the already prepared piece.

To break-the-ice, you can tell a short, relevant story or begin by doing an out of the way exercise like giving a joke or introducing yourself. This breaks the air of formality and helps both you and your audience relax enough to conveniently and enjoyably face the business of the day. By the time you have made your audience laugh or you have expended your pent-up tension telling a story, you will have made the atmosphere informal enough and gained the rapt attention of the audience.

Pen Cap Trick: Another way of managing stage fright is by directing the tension to your finger tips rather than to your head and mouth. This is possible by keeping your fingers actively engaged, as the natural course of function of the human system directs pressure/energy to a part of the body that is engaged in an activity. Therefore, if your attention lies only with your eyes and vocal cord, they will have to find a way of expending all the energy directed at them and in the process, mistakes could be made.

Splitting this pressure from your upper region to another section helps to keep balance in the overall management of tension and helps you coordinate and concentrate better in the efficacious delivery of your speech. The trick is to keep an object in your hand which your fingers will be compressing while you do the talking.

Because this activity is more physical than the intellectual role of speaking, more tension/pressure in exerted and expended here, leaving your heart with less thuds per time, and your concentration devoid of excessive anxiety.

However, it is advised that you pick an object that would not attract more attention than the speech. Something small enough to be completely hidden in your pals, and that does not make noise would do. Many people use paper clip, which they bend and straighten many times, while they speak. I had used pen cap made of plastic.

Looking, not Seeing: When presenting a speech or any creative work before an audience, many beginners find that they get lost if they focus on keeping eye contact with specific members of audience. The fact that your audience are taken along more when you keep eye contact with them is not to say that you must pay attention to the expressions on the faces as this will, more often than not, distract you. You can look in the direction of your audience generally without seeing of focusing on any one in particular. That way, everyone thinks you are looking at the next person and you end up achieving satisfactory presentation at the conclusion.

Diction: This had been touched earlier, but cannot be exhausted. The language of presentation should be chosen in line with the characteristics of the audience. Generally, a verbose speech is unnecessarily lengthy and full of jaw breaking language that make everyone clap for you not for the meaning and sense derived from your presentation, but for the amusement. The bottom line is to communicate, not to impress.

Structure of a Good Speech

A good speech, like every good piece of writing, is not just poured out at audience, but is meaningfully communicated only when it meets a prescribed, conventional specification. Every speech, good or bad has the following components, which either makes or mars it, depending on the writer/presenter’s ability to weave the various components into one beautiful piece or failure to do so, which leaves the work deformed like a physically challenged man.

• An introduction: this being the first line of your presentation, it is the most important as it sets the tone and mood for the rest of the presentation. If therefore, your introduction is good, it captivates audiences’ attention and stirs up interest: sends questions, expectations and anxieties running in the minds of the audience. So also does a poor introduction kill their appetite, so that rather than get anxious to get the rest of the gist from you, they get anxious to dispose of your time wasting presence. Speech makers of reasonable experience will tell you that the most embarrassing moment of their careers was when an audience just stared at them indifferently, while they made frantic efforts to get their attention. Often, they’d ignore you and fill in the gap by telling stories and holding pockets of briefs underground.

To avoid such pitfalls, your introduction must stir interest and be interesting enough for one man to tell another to keep quiet let him hear you well, as each speech must be worth the time spent to receive it. Otherwise, they would just switch off psycho-mentally, while leaving you to make the noise.

To achieve this, you can ask a rhetoric question, use an anecdote (a short analogical story) or a catchy quote but which must be relevant and which would make your presentation easier to achieve.

• Linkage: while some may argue rightly that the body of a speech and this section are indistinct, there is a need here to split them for the purpose of proper better understanding. A linkage is a sentence or two that connect the introduction with the details’ section (body) of the presentation.

• The Body of Details: Haven captivated the interest of your audience in the introduction and properly linked it using appropriate word, the emphasis now rests on providing all the details that are the main thrust of the presentation. All the points you may have gathered in the research will now be knit together beautifully and well explained to answer the questions your audience are likely to be asking. Your points must be well explained and objectively convincing enough that at the end, your audience will be left in no doubt (even if their own opinion differ), but rather have clear understanding of your impressions.

• The Conclusion: the last line of a good presentation should leave a lasting impression on people’s minds. Often, a relevant quote or rhetoric does the magic but the speech writer or (and) the presenter should understand that the relevance of the devices to subject or occasion as well as your accuracy of expressions is what leaves indelible marks on the minds of audiences. The conclusion should be food for thought, something people should remember long after they may have forgotten everything else, including the speech maker.

Basic Principles by Dreg En Ay

Source by Dreg En Ay


Management and Leadership Value Realization – Two Sides of the Same Coin

Picture two fires ablaze in your beloved community. Different individuals represent each building with equally good plans on how to stop the fire. One steps forward reminding the people that his historic site has a valuable legacy to all, while the other structure is merely an empty warehouse. He calls out with hands held high for everyone to grab their buckets and form a line, chanting cheers to their accomplishments. The other person gets out their blow horn barking out orders to get going, demanding results or else, “I’ll hit you with my cane.”

Where would you focus your efforts? To whom would you give your highest level of efforts? People who are inspired to do their best for a larger purpose bring substantially more than lemmings “going through the motions” in fear of disciplinary action.

This story simply illustrates the value of both leadership and management and why they must co-exist to have truly great accomplishments. You need to simultaneously have a larger perspective and be able to clearly define the steps to get where you need to go. A higher vantage point benefits one greatly with vision and knowledge, but at the same time, one cannot do what one cannot define.

Last week, we held a Luminary Board meeting with some of the top C-Level minds in our area. The discussion was around how to make good managers better, of course, and the constant betterment of the approach to make that a reality. A resonating point was brought to light when a brilliant mind surmised, “An ‘A’ player to me is not just a manager but a leader.” What a difference.

To gain further perspective, here is a quick checklist to help define those differences between managers and leaders:


Manage other’s activities……Motivate others to achieve

Make plans……Promote vision

Formal authority dictated……Given authority through influence

Task focused……Achievement focused

Risk averse……Risk seeking


Have subordinates……Have followers


Focus on things……Focus on people

Create systems……Create an environment

Short-term approach……Long-term approach


Administers and tracks change…….Maintains continual improvement

Acquired rewards……Intrinsic rewards

All about control……All about trust

The fact is, the most effective leaders have both characteristics. But managers without leadership traits simply will not become true leaders. What they can do is focus their efforts around ongoing improvements that increase their performance to help close the gap.

It has been said…Managers do things right. Leaders do the right things. Utopia exists when we are doing the right things right.

Source by Shiloh Kelly


How to Make Wine the Old Fashioned Way

by sinnga kilam 0 Comments

People have been making wine for about 8,000 years our of grapes and other fruit juices. But how did they do it in ancient times?

Did they have the yeast? Did they have sterilized containers to make it in? Did they even know what sterilized meant?

Ancient hieroglyphs in the early Mesopotamian culture indicate that they did have knowledge of how to make wine. But those glyphs go on to tell us a little more…

First of all, grapes that grow in the wild or in vineyards have their own yeast on the outside of the skins. Now isn’t that handy? If you harvest grapes and crush them to get the juice out BUT leave the grape skins in, the mixture will ferment all by itself because of the naturally occurring yeast. In most cases, the natural yeast is NOT the yeast that we would use today but it apparently served it’s purpose back in ancient times.

But, if you wanted to, you could make wine the same way our ancestors did and just let nature do the fermentation for you with the naturally occurring yeast. It won’t be as strong in alcohol as it would if you used some currently available commercial winemaking yeast, but it will still do the trick.

But what about the necessity to have everything cleaned and sterilized before starting? Surely there was no way to accomplish this back in ancient times…

Well – yes and no. It is mentioned several times in many ancient texts that silver has an antibacterial effect. To this day we know that silver kills bacteria or severely inhibits bacterial growth. The ancients could start their wine in large silver lined containers and let it ferment in them.

Once the alcohol content was high enough, the wine itself and the alcohol it contains is enough to keep bugs from growing.

Fast forward to today’s times and we use sulfites to both preserve wine and to keep bugs or other bacteria frowing in the juice while it is fermenting. By the way, sulfites are a LOT cheaper than silver lined containers!

Source by Mike Carraway


How to Get a Straight Penis and a Rock Hard Erection in 2 Easy Steps

by sinnga kilam 0 Comments

Are you shy or feeling self conscious about your penis curvature? Or probably you are too shy getting changed in public places or even a simple gym trip no longer interests you because of what those other guys might say when they peep at your penis and try to compare it with their own.

You don’t have to go through all these troubles simply because you don’t have a straight penis. You will discover in this article how to get a straight penis and a rock hard erection in 2 easy steps.

Step 1: Natural Exercises: This method has been practiced for a long time in straightening a curve penis and it has been proved to be a very effective method. Using this method not only help in straightening your penis but also helps you in achieving a rock hard erection. Natural penis exercises are very effective.

Step 2: Traction Device: This is a small device that can be worn comfortably beneath your clothing for about 2-3 hours a day and never even realize you are wearing it. This device is also very effective and corrects your penis curvature by up to 70%. However, care must be taken when buying a traction device. Before you shop for one, make sure it has a good medical backing, clinically proven, supported with medical solution and offers the guarantee you need. I highly recommend the one offered by SizeGenetics. It is very effective. As in the case of natural exercises in step 1, the use of traction device can also help you achieve a rock hard erection.

Most men prefer to combine natural penis exercises with the use of a traction device. This combination not only correct the penis curvature but also gives a rock hard erection, improve their sexual performance, add inches to their penis, good ejaculations control, good stamina in bed and a longer sex sessions.

After trying any of the above steps or both, you will no longer be ashamed to change in public because you will now be confident about yourself and about your new penis shape.

Go try them out and you will see how easy it is to get a straight penis and a rock hard erection.

Get videos or manuals that will show you how to practice these steps properly so that you will not hurt your penis while practicing them. You can visit our blog to download a free e-book on how to perform these steps.

Source by Ariyo Haruna


7 Major Factors to Consider During Language Translation

Translation is an important factor in bringing people and businesses across the world closer together. Etymologically speaking, “translation” refers to “bringing across” or “carrying across”. Thus, with the help of translation, one can break language barriers which often hamper effective communication. If a company, individual or organization wants to communicate or share information with people and business contacts who speak other languages, you can use the the help of a professional agency for translation in Toronto or any other large Canadian city.

Language translation is a detailed, complex process in which a translator or language expert expresses the meaning of content in the first language in a second language. While converting the text from one language to another, the meaning must remain the same. Usually, the first language is referred to as the “source language” and the language into which the text is translated is known as the “target language”.

Language translations completed by an established translation agency in Toronto, Montreal, Ottawa, Calgary or for that matter any other large Canadian city, is usually of professional quality. However, dealing with foreign languages is not as easy as one might imagine. It would be incorrect to assume that translation means simply changing the text word for word from one language into another.

To start with, translation work requires intensive research into the subject matter of the source text. The translator naturally needs to have a thorough knowledge of both the source and target languages. Ideally, the translator will be a native speaker in the target language.. Plus, the translator also needs to have profound knowledge and understanding of the customs and lifestyle of the group of people who are going to benefit from the translated work so that they are able to understand the translated work in its entirety. In addition, the translator must be a subject matter expert, with a specialization such as legal, medical, technical, scientific or commercial translations.

Translation work is not a mechanical process where you just translate each source word to the targeted language. Rather, there are many factors that need to be considered to obtain accurate and culturally appropriate output in the target language.

Here are some of such factors a translator must understand and pay attention to:

1. The actual context of both the source and target language – The meaning and connotations of the same concept can be very different in two languages.

2. The rules of grammar of both languages – Grammar is an essential part of language translation and every language has its own set of structural rules that must be observed.

3. Correct spelling in the target language, for example, even in American and British English the spelling of the same word can be different . For example, the American English word “color” would be spelled “colour” in British English.

4. The writing conventions of the target language – These conventions include spelling, punctuation, capitalization, grammar, and paragraphing. The translator needs to employ the correct conventions to enhance the readability of the paper.

5. The meaning of idioms and phrases of both the source and target language is often a complex issue. For example, if we use the English phrase “Wear your heart on your sleeve” translated literally, it will probably not have the same meaning in another language.

6. The usage of points and commas to separate decimals and thousands within numbers has different rules in different languages. This is important as in English the convention followed is 1,000.01, while the same is written as 1.000,01 in the Spanish language. This is something that needs to be considered for high quality service for Spanish translations.

7. Plus, while translating in certain languages such as Arabic and Hebrew, a translator must translate using a right-to left alphabet.

In addition to the above mentioned factors, it is important for the creation of an error-free translation to carefully proofread the translation against the source text. Editing at different stages is a good method to come up with an error-free copy. And even after editing, before delivering the final copy, final proofreading is must.

Keep these things in mind while selecting an agency for translation in Toronto or any other large Canadian city.

Source by Albert Carter


The Body Project – An Intimate History of American Girls

The main point of the book is to not only display issues that are so relevant today in women’s lives, but more importantly date back to where it began and how it all unfolded. This book proves how much roles of women and their bodies have transformed; some for the better and some for the worse. In basically chronological order, Brumberg proves to America that is not just media (although this is one dangerous cause) that can be reasoning for the loss of innocence in woman, but there are deeper, less obvious reasons for the transformation in women’s lives from the 19th century through the 20th century.

Her main argument that she constantly is trying to prove is that adolescents need protection from the dangers society and life presents. Because their bodies are maturing earlier, does not mean that they are mentally prepared for adulthood. With all of the aspects of adulthood arising earlier and earlier girls are feeling the pressures in many different areas of their body and life choices.

Different decades present different obsessions, however girls wanting to improve their life and body is not a new phenomenon, it has always existed in some way or another. The difference through the decades, however, shows a serious incline in the persistent dangers that arise through time.

Chapter one begins the history of how adolescent girls started to become less sheltered and more susceptible to risks. The chapter argues that girls in the 19th century menstruated at a later age then most girls do today. She states that this is due to biological factors, in that today girls are larger and healthier then they used to be, and there is less disease in the world.

Brumberg found that after the civil war women’s role in society was expanding and it left the public wondering if women could handle all aspects of their lives. For example, one quote I found that would probably be comical to present day readers stated, “Can women do intellectual work, menstruate, and also remain healthy?” . It may seem funny for girls today to hear such a sexist comment, however, menarche in this time period was not something that society took lightly.

If adolescent girls in the 19th century menstruated at an early age it was looked down upon and said to be bad or associated with illness. However, with the turn of the century it was no longer held a negative connotation, and it was recognized as something all women go through. Now, there was a different concern presented. Women were expanding their roles, menstruation was being considered as a lead way into woman hood, and society felt that their duty was to protect the innocence.

Popular single-sex groups formed to support the “protective umbrella” theory, and women of all ages and cultures were coming together to care for not only their own children, but all girls. By the 20th century Brumberg found that menstruation was no longer a concern of society but the effects of it would be the beginning of all the problems that exist even today.

The fact that menstruation is even today a little secretive, I believe that Brumberg did a great job in finding out the emotional aspect girls go through by taking a look into their personal lives. And what better way to get in touch with adolescent girls, both past and present, then to enter their most trusted friend, their diary? The way the author presents material from primary sources and non-fictional characters, helps the reader feel connected to the information being presented.

The first concern that followed to curiosity period of menstruation was shown in chapter 2 of the book. The chapter begins by describing how menarche moved to a hygiene concern from a girl losing their innocence one. In the early 20th century the rise of sanitary napkins became what many refer to as one aspect of the American way to menstruate.

Purchasing sanitary napkins was sometimes seen as a luxury, but all girls wanted to have them because society and doctors portrayed it as necessary for personal hygiene. Doctors were becoming more active in teachings about the female body, and now mothers were just assistance rather than main informants to their daughters. In the 1920’s menstruation became a much more open subject, especially with ads for sanitary napkins being shown in popular magazines.

In the 1930’s and 1940’s programs were being offered, free of charge, to give instruction and information on the process of menstruation. Videos were being produced and shown in a single-sex setting, and now menarche was an open and important subject for adolescent girls. With all of this being produced, shown, and talked about, girls were faced with more pressure than ever before to get their body under control.

Today, menstruation is talked about much more than it has been in the past but Brumberg argues that the way we discuss this process is through the discussion of hygiene over anything else. She feels that we should be concerned with the emotions behind reaching puberty, rather than just which brand of sanitary napkins we are going to chose at the store.

I have never thought of the fact that we do truly discuss “getting our period” in a hygienic way. It just seems so natural for our generation, that we forget to truly stop and look at what our body and minds are actually going through. In this chapter Brumberg continued to use diaries, but she also presented different point of views from doctors, both past and present.

This is a very important source of information, considering that menstruation is a biological process and has always concerned the involvement of doctors. The fact that in the early 20th century menarche became on obsession with hygiene, this would be only the first of adolescent girl’s obsession with their entire body.

As the title reveals, Brumberg teaches the readers of all of the different body projects that girls have gone through throughout the years of the 20th century. Chapter 3 discussed the first one which was perfecting her skin. As many people know during puberty everyone’s bodies change, and this sometimes leads to a problem known as acne. Having good skin was always a concern, even in the Victorian age; however, beauty mostly lied within until the 20th century.

Although it was no longer associated with disease, or promiscuous sexual behavior, acne caused problems in adolescent girls (and boys) with the rise of mirrors. Girls started to become obsessed with perfecting their face, and extremely self conscious of their looks. To society, acne was a sign of poverty and uncleanliness, and families along with adolescent girls were willing to go to any extent to better their appearance. Doctors and culture in the 1930’s and 1940’s associated acne with mental illness which was a positive thing for the cosmetic and drug industry. Acne and the desire to have perfect skin left American girls vulnerable and in danger.

Girls were now willing to try anything, even if it was harmful, to improve the chance of clearing their unwanted blemishes. I agreed with Brumberg on most of her issues concerning the first body project presented to American girls. However, one may counter argue that even in the Victorian age it is hard to state that beauty truly lied within. I personally believe that external beauty has always been a concern to young women; it is just now more evident with the ever growing popularity of media.

Brumberg believes that today we are in a much worse place than girls of the Victorian age, however although many things have changed, I believe that girls obsession with the way they look has always been an evident problem. Just the fact that there were never mirrors, does not prove girls did not worry about their appearance, or that men really judged a girl just on her inner beauty. Corsets, which Brumberg introduces in the beginning of the book, were one example of how women in the 19th century did in fact try to perfect their bodies to the best of their ability.

Source by Gillian Smyth


Tips on How to Control Swelling After a Knee Replacement

by sinnga kilam 0 Comments

I have run across many orthopedic surgeons who have told their patients that, the knee surgery itself was the easy part, the tough part is the rehabilitation after. The rehabilitation aspect will ultimately fall directly in the hands of the patient. Of course there is a part to play here in regards to the physical therapist, and hopefully the therapist can impress upon the patient through education that keeping the pain and swelling to acceptable levels is vital for a successful rehabilitation outcome.

Our knees after the surgery are very temperamental. In other words, it does not take much in regards to exercise or excessive walking around the house to set off a chain of events that can take hours if not days to get back under control.

Many patients are told after surgery that the rehabilitation and walking are important. Often you will hear “you have too get up and walk” that’s true but like many things, this is done in moderation.

This will mean many things to many people but taking a walk around the house every hour or hour and a half is all that is needed. To much time on your feet will cause excessive swelling and a slow down of the overall strengthening and conditioning of the affected leg.

If you find you must be up on your feet more often due the fact for there is no one in your home to assist you with cooking etc… Its is suggested you look into getting a pair of TED compression stockings to keep the swelling down. They come in several sizes and the pressure gradients vary but a local medical supply should have them in stock. Contact your orthopedic as well if further information is needed. many times your doctor will issue these himself while you are at the hospital before discharge.

Keeping your affected leg elevated is very important. How long to keep your leg elevated will vary between individuals, but in the first two weeks after surgery if you are not walking or exercising, the leg it should be elevated and it should be positioned higher then your heart for proper drainage of the area surrounding your knee.

Keeping ice on the knee is important as well. The ice is used for pain control and to decrease swelling. You really cannot overdue the ice. Many people will have questions on how often the ice should used and how long. Using ice immediately after exercise is the time its most effective along with foot elevation for edema control it will be the best one-two punch you can get to keep pain and swelling manageable.

The amount of time you spend walking around your home or outdoors is extremely important immediately surgery. Getting up is good but this as well has to be in moderation. Body fluid is affected by the law of gravity and will pool in the lower portion of your leg or legs. if you find that you have to spend considerable time up on your feet, take the time that is needed then get back to where you can elevate the leg as soon as possible. I recommend also that if the swelling and pain are consistent and remains a chronic condition, to take an entire day off your feet with the operated foot elevated and you will see and feel a remarkable difference. Taking the day off means also that you hold the exercises as well. I assure you that you will do more good then harm by doing that. The problem would only lie if you decided to take several days off and not get in your walking or exercises that you would fall behind on your rehab.

Remember, ice, elevation, wearing a compression stocking on the operated leg and close monitoring of the time spent on your feet those first two weeks will determine how much pain and swelling you will encounter. If you are someone that retains fluid easily in the first place, your doctor may prescribe a diuretic like lasix to rid the body of the excess fluid, and prescribe the compression stocking before you leave the hospital.

Try this combination for starters and follow the suggestion of your physical therapist for the education needed to make the knee replacement as successful as possible.

Source by Richard A Haynes


Hot Wheels Collecting Tips

by sinnga kilam 0 Comments

Collecting Hot Wheels cars is an easy and fairly inexpensive hobby. Here are some collecting tips to get you on your way with this ever growing hobby of die-cast cars.

* Keep abreast of upcoming special collector days at your neighborhood K-Mart or Wal-Mart stores in your area.

* Search the online auctions or collector’s web sites for cars you may be missing from your current collection.

* Purchase trade books and magazines to stay on top of the value of each car.

* Begin with the latest releases if you are just starting out. Most newer Hot Wheels will not be too difficult to find and you can keep track of your collection with a Mattel Hot Wheels checklist.

* Find all the cars released in the latest years First Editions Series or Treasure Hunt Series limited editions. There are also 12 Final Run retiring models each year; these may be a little harder to find.

* Look for Planet Micro vehicles. There are six different series of these tiny car sets.

* If at all possible do not open the packages that your hot wheels come in. They hold their highest value if they are in their original package.

* When buying cars from eBay, make sure to check out the seller and their selling history. This will give you a great idea of the type seller you are dealing with.

* All ways be on the look out for neighborhood garage sales and estate sales you might visit.

* The biggest collecting tip is to just have fun and do not spend more than you can afford.

Happy Hunting!

Source by Dave Cherry


How to Write a Synopsis For an Article

Whether you call it a synopsis, a description or a summary, the two to five sentences you should include when publishing your article on an article directory are more important than many people assume. If you tend to simply copy and paste the first few sentences of your article into the summary or description box then you could be missing out on a whole heap of traffic that’s passing you by. Find out what’s so important about a synopsis, when to write one, and how to create a summary which helps significantly increase the number of times your article is seen and read, helping boost traffic to your website.

Imagine if authors didn’t take the time to write a synopsis on the back of their novels, but instead just copied out the first few lines from the book itself. Do you think they’d sell as well? Of course not. Most people tend to read the blurb on the back or the inside cover, and this will often give them an indication of whether the book might be worth considering, or putting back on the shelf.

Writing a synopsis of a book tends to take a very great deal of time, and in fact many authors have complained that it’s often the hardest part of the whole book to write. How do you summarise tens of thousands of words in just a paragraph or two? It can be a painful experience deciding on what must be left out, what must be ignored and what must be condensed into an absurdly brief space. But more than this, a book synopsis must sell the book. It’s very often the main way in which books are sold.

Now of course, if you’re writing articles for publication online you don’t have quite such a hard job condensing a few hundred words into a handful of sentences. It’s a much easier job in that respect, but the need to sell your article is just as important, and it is this which is the main purpose of your summary.

Understanding Where Your Synopsis Will Be Seen

There are three main ways in which people may come across your article: through a listing on the article directory itself, through a listing on the results page of a search engine, or through a link in a social media site such as Facebook or Google+. In all three of these cases there will be just two things to encourage people to click the link and read your article: the title, and the summary.

If you look up your articles on Google, or in a search engine such as Google, or even link to one yourself on your Facebook or Google+ page and see how it looks you’ll see for yourself that all that’s there to sell your article is the title and the description. Hopefully your title is top notch, designed to knock people’s socks off and grab their attention. But a title alone isn’t enough. How many times have you picked up a book because the title sounded exciting, intriguing, funny or otherwise up your street, yet when you started reading the synopsis you decided that perhaps it wasn’t for you after all?

That’s the problem with writing a weak summary for articles online. If all you do is use the first couple of sentences from your article then you are seriously reducing the likelihood of people being grabbed by the relevance of your article. Your opening sentences are likely to be an introduction to the topic, problem, question or review. A summary should not be an introduction. It stands to reason, since a summary and an introduction are two entirely different concepts.

Why A Summary Should Not Really Be A Summary

But there’s a problem too with the word ‘summary’, because a synopsis can’t just be a description of the contents of the article. A summary alone is unlikely to grab attention, and so it has to be written in a way which is likely to do so. You probably spend quite a while coming up with a suitable title, at least I hope you do, since the title is the first thing almost everyone will see when they come across a link to or reference to your article. Your summary needs to have at least as much thought and time invested into it in order for it to work as hard as your title does to gain hits.

One of the best ways of making sure that your summary is effective is to write it before you write the article. The advantage of this is that you set out a clear focus for the article, including a clear question, problem or issue which you will be addressing. This not only means that your summary or synopsis is short, sharp and carries a clear purpose, but so does your article.

Ideally the first sentence of your synopsis should directly relate to whatever it is your target audience are wanting to know, to find out or to learn. This could well be a question, or a reflection on the fact that the issue is one currently gaining much attention. This helps to make sure that your potential reader is aware of the immediate relevance of your article to their problem or need. But then what?

Your second sentence should then provide them with a clear indication of the fact that the article addresses that need, and provides useful information, valuable insight, or direct answers.

Writing An Example Article Synopsis

Let’s see an example. Let’s imagine that you are writing an article about how to juggle. Your first sentence might be, “Have you always wanted to learn how to juggle balls?” Your next sentence might be, “Discover the secret to juggling in 3 easy steps.” Notice how I included the fact that the solution will be provided in a numbered set of steps or stages? This adds a great deal of credibility to your summary. Don’t imply that you’re just going to waffle on a bit about the subject. People like numbered steps or stages when learning how to do something. It’s the difference between telling someone to go to the shops and buy all the ingredients to make ratatouille, and giving them a shopping list of ingredients. People like lists, because it’s easier to remember and work through.

Adding Author Credibility In Your Article Description

Finally, it’s often helpful to include a little extra bit of information which adds personal credibility to you as the author. Perhaps you might write, “The world’s only bicycle juggling stage performer shows you how to get started in just five minutes.” You’ll see that although the article is probably written in the first person, the synopsis is more usually written in the third person. There’s no real rule on this, and opinion is very divided, but somehow the third person lends a more independent sense of credibility and authority when viewed in search results.

Finally, make sure that once you have finished writing your article you re-read your summary and make sure it really does accurately reflect the content of the article. It’s also important to make sure you thoroughly proofread your synopsis. An astonishing number of people seem to pay scant attention to their descriptions, which can seriously damage the chance that anyone will go on to read the article itself.

Source by Justin Arnold


Toddlers in Tiaras – The Benefits of Child Beauty Pageants

Just saying the words Beauty Queen causes you to think of gleaming smiles, evening gowns and diamond tiaras. Following the success of films such as Drop Dead Gorgeous and Miss Congeniality, beauty pageants are growing all the more popular in western culture. There was a time when pageants were specifically for girls and women over the age of 18, now however there are child beauty pageants which are open to girls under 12.

Initially the thought of girls in child beauty pageants are a bit shocking however, if you think about how naturally little girls go into their mother’s wardrobe and try on jewellery and shoes, pageants are just an extension of childhood fantasies of being a princess. Provided that the outfits that the child wears in the pageant are tasteful, then there is little reason to object to them.

The different rounds in a beauty pageant can allow the child to develop skills that they may require later in life. For instance, the interview round can teach the participant about enunciation, voicing their opinions and general public speaking skills. In addition to this, they will learn how to be themselves and feel comfortable talking to larger groups of people, which can be crucial in school situations when presentations may need to be given in class.

The talent portion of a beauty pageant allows the child to develop their own talents and having to perform it in front of others will help them to overcome shyness. One of the main reasons that parents enter their children in child beauty pageants is to help boost their self esteem. Although not every child can win the overall competition, each child will be given a prize for taking part. In addition to this, these pageants encourage the child to be more comfortable in their own skin.

Many parents who have had children with birth defects will enter them into these pageants in order to teach them that they are not different to other children and can take part in the things that other children take part in. This works both ways, as the children in the competition learn not to judge others if they are disabled and become more accepting; this is something that a lot of children do not have the ability to do if they rarely interact with a disabled person.

Beauty pageants give children the opportunity to be made to feel like a princess for a day, there is the potential that some may feel it encourages children to grow up too quickly, but if the children have well grounded parents then there is little reason to think this. I know from experience that young girls spend hours just day dreaming about wearing diamond tiaras, high heels and makeup.

Source by Dominic Donaldson