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Home Warranty Tips – Find Out Why Getting Coverage Is Important

by sinnga kilam 0 Comments

One question that every homeowner is faced with when buying a new home is whether or not they should get home warranty coverage. Well, there are plenty of things that factor into making that decision, but most people would agree that having coverage is well worth the cost.

For those of you new to warranties, basically it’s a type of “insurance” the provides coverage for major systems and appliances in your home. For example, lets just say you have a built-in dishwasher that is causing you problems. You can either pay to get it fixed, or depending on the condition of it, you may end up getting a new one. But having warranty coverage enables you to get it fixed or replaced at a fraction of the cost.

Also, most providers have a network of companies they are affiliated with who provides consumers with the replacement parts or repairs. So it eliminates the hassle of trying to find a reputable repair company. It may not seem like a big deal, but every day people spend countless of hours trying to find a company that has good reviews and have a decent price. And having warranty coverage provides you with top notch contractors and at a low price.

As for the cost of coverage, well that usually falls within the range of about $30 to $100 a month depending on the type of coverage you need. Now, for some new home buyers, adding another bill to the list of bills they already have may seem unnecessary, but when you think about how much it cost to repair certain things around your home, you quickly realize that having warranty coverage is the best option.

This is an important aspect to keep in mind, because the last thing you would want to do is have to pay a huge bill to get something repaired and have to dip into your savings to do so.

And lastly, while having coverage is important, as I stated earlier, some people may not need it. Those of you with mostly modern appliances on your home, most of the appliances may be covered under the manufacturer warranty already. But if you have an older home with outdated appliances, you definitely want to at least contact some warranty companies to see how much it would cost you for coverage.

If you want even more information about home warranty coverage and get some rate quotes, be sure to visit today!

Source by Victor Dice


How to Make Time Pass Quickly on an Airplane

by sinnga kilam 0 Comments

Air travel is one of the fastest, most efficient and safest forms of travel that man has developed. However, for most people, spending a few hours on a plane is a dull and boring experience. Knowing how to make time pass quickly on a plane will benefit you both physically and mentally. The long tedious and monotonous flight time along with the endless humming of the engine and other audible ambient noises can render a person on a plane bored and exhausted.

Making time pass quickly on an airplane is not as complicated as it sounds. Knowing how to make time pass by will make your trip much more bearable. Most people just try to sit still and be quiet, but to be honest; that only makes things more unbearable and time pass even slower. It would also contradict our first tip on how to make time pass quickly on an airplane, which is:

1. Stop watching the clock. Watching the clock and minding the time will only make you count more sheep and exhaust you unnecessarily. Checking the time frequently will only make the time pass by slower on an airplane. As the saying goes “a watched clock never moves”

2. Another small but great idea when making time pass quickly on a plane is deep breathing, as most people with any kind of medical know-how would suggest. It’s probably the most common health advice in the hospital besides “drink lots of water”. Breathing shallow and quickly tricks our bodies into thinking that time is moving more slowly. So breathe deeply and let time pass quickly.

3. Other than ignoring the slowness of time, a great technique for making time pass faster on an airplane is making conversation with the people seated next to you. Making good conversation not only makes time pass quicker it also opens up opportunities to meet new people and make new friends. It’s a win-win deal.

4. Sleep is probably more of common sense than advice but it is nevertheless worth mentioning. Sleep will not only help you make pass time longer in an airplane but also prepare you and rejuvenate your mind and body for the activities you may have planned upon arrival in your destination.

5. You can’t sleep? Well then maybe some soothing music can help you get to sleep and make the time pass quickly while on the plane. Music has proven to make boring and exhausting flights much more bearable. It is no secret that music can affect our mood. So it’s probably wise when trying to make time pass quicker while on a plane to play a music genre that has that relaxing effect on you.

6. In this day and age, everything we need can probably in your pocket. If you have your hand-held gaming device with you, you can spend the time playing and actually enjoy this spare time. This is also a great option for those restless kids. These games can work wonders on kids, keeping them focused and, more importantly, quiet and occupied.

7. Portable computers such as laptops also give you something to do to pass the time while on a long flight. Most modern airplanes even have power sources for recharging and wireless internet available and we all know what the internet means. The internet is the best cure for boredom and will definitely make your flight much more bearable.

8. In-flight movies are also available on most airplanes, if you are lucky enough you might find the screening movie to be of your liking, which will probably render at least 2 hours off your flight wait. Nowadays, many planes allow you to choose from a selection of movies that will play in your own personal screen, located in the seat back in front of you. Just like watching a movie at home, in-flight movies are sure to help make time pass quicker during a long airplane flight.

9. On a long quiet flight, there is nothing more entertaining than reading a good book. Now, it doesn’t even have to be a physical book; you can read e-books on your phone or other handheld device. Some people enjoy reading newspapers, magazines or comics to pass the time on a plane. There really is no better way to pass the time on an airplane than by reading a great book!

Source by Kathy Adrian


Challenges In Rural Marketing


Our country is endowed with a good degree of ethnic and regional diversity. About three-fourth of the total population resides in the rural areas and majority of them are dependent upon agriculture for their subsistence. Agriculture contributes about 24.7% to the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of the country. It also contributes about 13.1% to the total Indian exports. This sector provides employment to 58.4% of the country’s workforce and livelihood to more than 650 million people. Despite this fact, the condition of these people has not shown any significant improvement.

The development of the nation largely depends upon the development of the rural population. Mahatma Gandhi had once said: “India’s way is not Europe’s. India is not Calcutta and Bombay. India lives in her several hundreds of villages”.

Rural Market Potential

India is an agro-based economy and the growth of most of the other sectors of economy is driven by rural demand. Urban market is reaching towards the saturation point, thus bringing in and urgent need to focus on rural development. Moreover, more than 70% of India’s population lives in villages and constitutions a big market for industry because of increasing disposal incomes and awareness level.

In comparison to just 5,161 towns in India there are 6,38,365 villages in India. This in itself is an indicator where the real India resides. Companies are realizing slowly but surely that the key to gain true market leadership lies in tapping the rural potential. However, the rural sector in India suffers from different kinds of problems. Some areas are having enough money but their level of awareness and hence consumerism is very low. But there are many areas where economic empowerment, education, health etc., are major problems.

What is rural marketing

While there is a large growth in the urban market, the rural or latent market is yet to be tapped, and has an enormous potential for growth. A rural market can be defined as any market that exists in a area where the population is less than 10, 000. The rural market in India is scattered and spread over a wide geographical area. Indian market is divided into urban and rural markets.

o Urban market is flooded with low demand.

o Rural market witnesses a high demand It’s the rural segment of market that contributes more profit than its urban counterpart. Rural marketing broadly involves reaching customers, understanding their wants, supply of goods and services, and ultimately satisfying consumers, leading to more sales. The general impression is that only agricultural inputs like seeds, fertilizers, pesticides, cattle feed and agricultural machinery have a potential for growth in the rural market. However, there is a growing market for consumer goods now. It has been estimated the rural market is growing at the rate of five times its urban counterpart.

Challenges in Rural Marketing

Though rural markets are a huge attraction to marketers, it is not easy to enter the market and take a sizeable share of the market, in the short time due to the following reasons.

Low Literacy

There are not enough opportunities for education in rural areas. The literacy level is as low (36%) when compared to all- India average of 52%.

Seasonal Demand

Demand for goods in rural markets depends upon agricultural situation, as agriculture is the main source of income. Agriculture to a large extent depends upon monsoon and, therefore, the demand or buying capacity is not stable or regular.


Many rural areas are not connected by rail transport. Kacha roads become unserviceable during the monsoon and interior villages get isolated.


An effective distribution system requires village-level shopkeeper, Mandal/ Taluka- level wholesaler or preferred dealer, distributor or stockiest at district level and company-owned depot or consignment distribution at state level. The presence of too many tiers in the distribution system increases the cost of distribution.

Communication Problems

Facilities such as telephone, fax and telegram are rather poor in rural areas.

Traditional Life

Life in rural areas is still governed by customs and traditions and people do not easily adapt new practices. For example, even rich and educated class of farmers does not wear jeans or branded shoes.

Buying Decisions

Rural consumers are cautious in buying and decisions are slow and delayed. They like to give a trial and only after being personally satisfied, do they buy the product.

Media for Promotions

Television has made a great impact and large audience has been exposed to this medium. Radio reaches large population in rural areas at a relatively low cost. However, reach of formal media is low in rural households; therefore, the market has to undertake specific sales promotion activities in rural areas like participating in melas or fairs.

Career in Rural Market

While rural marketing offers a challenging career, a rural sales person should require certain qualifications and specialized talent.

Cultural Factors

Culture is a system of shared values, beliefs and perceptions that influence the behavior of consumers. There are different groups based on religion, caste, occupation, income, age, education and politics and each group exerts influence on the behavior of people in villages.

There is a belief among rural people that experience is more important than formal education and they respect salespersons who can offer practical solutions to their problems. Therefore, it is desirable that sales persons, especially those who have been brought up in cities are given a thorough training consisting of both theory and practical aspects of village life. The training will help these sales persons to align themselves with the market realities and settle down smoothly in their jobs.

Rural market has a tremendous potential that is yet to be tapped. A small increase in rural income, results in an exponential increase in buying power.

Future Trends

Markets which are not able to face the stiff competition posed by MNCs, can restore their profits in the rural sector. The market share of urban market when compared to the rural market is low, hence if Indian industries concentrate on rural markets their sales will increase. If rural markets are brought into the limelight of development, they pave way to prosperity. Prosperity of India lies in the prosperity of every Indian, hence no rural segment should be left untapped.

Source by Dr. Gomathi Viswanathan


Three Ways to Harness 68 Seconds of Pure Thought

According to Abraham Hicks, you need 68 seconds of pure thought to manifest a miracle. You would have transmitted a positive energy of intention into the Universe. If a string of thoughts is directed systematically and constructively, the energy vibrates at a frequency that draws the desired outcome and brings it into physical reality.

What is key is thought that is undiluted with negative self sabotaging beliefs. Thought is to be with absolutely clear intent. If you can have pure thought after pure thought, you increase the number of combustion points.

Principle of Focused Attention

The Principle of Focused Attention first states that a thought reaches a combustion point at 17 seconds of pure undiluted focus. As we all know, thoughts usually follow one after another. So if there is a second thought that is in alignment with the first, the effect is exponentially more powerful.

If you are able to hold the pure thought for 17 seconds, the energy expansion is equivalent to 2,000 action hours or the equivalent of mini-miracle. At the end of another 17 seconds, the next thought combusts. You get 34 seconds. The energy expansion is 20,000 action hours. With 68 seconds, you get 2,000,000 action hours.

Diluted Thoughts

Thoughts that go “I want a new and bigger car but I am worried that petrol prices are going to kill me”, “I would like to go on a nice all expenses paid vacation but my concern is that I cannot take that many days off” or “I want to do work that I love but I am too fearful of quitting my job that pays me well” cancels out the original intent. Do all these examples sound familiar to you?

If they do, you will need to find a way to keep the clutter of negative beliefs away. Just like any muscle, you need to exercise your mind. You will need to train your mind to think positive thoughts consistently.

Visualization Ways

What will be useful are practices that totally immerse your mind in the visualization process. Here are three easy-to-apply methods:

1) Make a 68 second video clip. Rather than have a disjointed show, have a storyboard. Do ensure that your clip lasts for 68 seconds or more and that it is entertaining enough so that you can focus your entire attention on it continuously while it is being played.

2) Create a 68 second running script. To have one thought after another after another, create a script. It is best to introduce momentum into your story. A suitable story will be one with a build up to the achievement of my final goal. It is like putting yourself in a race, where the medal is right at the finishing line. Add drama, details and descriptions to make your story interesting.

3) Indulge 68 seconds in creative art. Notice yourself getting lost in an inner world while you pursue creative projects? Then, this idea may just work for you: tell your vision or dreams through using art as a medium. You can cut pictures from magazines to create vision boards or work on an image editing software to create a nice picture. The point is to engage in a continuous 68 seconds of energizing thought patterns.

Source by Evelyn Lim


The Irony of Machiavelli's Bad Reputation, His Cunning Prince and the Irreverence of Mandragora

Niccolò Machiavelli. His name conjures everything devious, cunning, malicious and cruel. To call someone Machiavellian, or a Machiavel, is not a compliment, unless it be considered praise for unethical behaviour. In Shakespeare’s Othello, Iago is a supreme Machiavel, quite possibly the ultimate and best-known Machiavel in dramatic literature.

However, there is irony here for the grievous reputation given Machiavelli is grossly undeserved. For most of his adult life, he was involved with politics, striving always to better the life of the people. Dissatisfied with the indifference of expensive Swiss and German mercenaries to defend Florence, he created the military draft, conscripting Florentines to defend their own city. By the time of his early death at fifty-eight, he was a highly respected ambassador and political courier to France, as well as to city-states in Italy outside of his native Florence.

He was also a much loved man for his generosity and his intelligence, possessed a renowned sense of humour, was loyal to his friends, a caring father to his children, and devoted to his wife (even through his many love affairs-because, of course, he was a Florentine, and an Italian).

It was not until twenty years after his death that his reputation turned from a man respected, admired, and loved, to that of Satan in the flesh. Even his name became another epithet for the devil: Old Nick!

As for Niccolò himself, his pragmatic philosophy had no room-and little respect-for the spiritual. He was all too familiar with corrupt Church officials to be anything like a staunch believer in dogma; what faith he had he based on a reality that excluded the idea of a Heaven. He said often that he desired to go to Hell because he knew that he would meet his friends there.

We must blame the Jesuits, whom Niccolò adamantly did not consider friends, for the corruption of his name and reputation. That intellectual order of priests, not overjoyed with Machiavelli’s realistic thoughts about the Church, placed all of his writings on the Index of Forbidden Books, thus beginning the infamous legacy he has to this day.

His principal essay, The Prince, continues to intrigue and to stir controversy with its ideas of how to obtain, maintain, and promote power, seemingly at any cost, including human lives.

Although not primarily considered a playwright, his 1518 play, Mandragora (English title: The Mandrake), is considered by theatre scholars the finest comedy of the Italian Renaissance. This ribald play satirizes aspects of life, love-and, yes-power: its uses and its misuses. It was a huge success during his lifetime.

Over the ensuing centuries, Mandragora has seen countless productions. In the twentieth century alone, it found its way into English nine times, as well as adaptations into two operas, two light musicals, and two motion pictures. In this still young twenty-first century, it has already seen one new translation produced in New York City.

Heretofore, you always had to be part of an audience in a theatre to enjoy Machiavelli’s comedy, and a theatre, however large, remains a limited venue. Now there is another incarnation of this fascinating play. Mandragora is now a novel. Indeed, it is the only novel ever created from Machiavelli’s comedy, even after five centuries. This allows you to hold ‘Old Nick’ in your hands and take him, his outrageous ideas, and his hilarious irreverence with you wheresoever you go. Buon giorno!

Source by H.D. Greaves


A Summary of New Strategic Selling by Stephen Heiman and Diane Sanchez

If you have been involved in selling in a corporate environment, then you have probably had someone recommend that you read New Strategic Selling by Stephen Heiman and Diane Sanchez. If you haven’t taken their advice, see if you can’t find time in your schedule to give it a try. More than just a group of tips on finding new business, it’s one of those rare sales books that offers a new way of thinking about your profession, and sales strategy in general.

These days, it’s common to hear all kinds of people, from executives to politicians, talking about “win-win solutions.” But what many salespeople don’t recognize is that the term and concept largely originated with the release of New Strategic Selling.

Where New Strategic Selling really shines, however, isn’t in the specific buzzwords it has, but in the concept of mastering complex sales within organizations that have lots of layers… and lots of personalities. It says much about the politics of the sale as it does the selling process itself.

Simply put, New Strategic Selling teaches that, in any large sale to a big company, it’s crucial to identify exactly who the key contacts are, and then find out what their major motivations and buying styles are. Much of the work in my own books comes from these same principles, and that isn’t just because great minds think alike: If you are going to close the kinds of sales that will transform your career, you have to get good at identifying and mastering all of the relevant relationships.

That’s because the reasons your prospects have for choosing to buy from you, or not to buy from you, don’t always have to do with the benefits of your product or service. They may have their own agenda, which involves relationships with other vendors, the desire to see a certain project or department succeed, or even personal feelings they have about someone else involved in the buying decision. Learning to spot and deal with these types of situations – both as opportunities and obstacles to the sale – is an important skill for any modern salesperson, and especially one who wants to be a selling superstar.

New Strategic Selling is one of those few sales books that actually lives up to its name. It might not be heavy on individual tactics that you can use to close sales one at a time, but it can change the way you look at a complex sale and ultimately make you more successful when dealing with big companies.

Source by Carl C. Henry


How to Make Any Woman to Obey Your Command – And Persuade Her to Do Anything You Wish

by sinnga kilam 0 Comments

Have you ever heard of seduction triggers that you can use to turn any negative reaction on a woman’s part into something that works for you? Such is the power of persuasive seduction that women who previously thought you don’t cut it will change their mind in a flash.

In fact, if you do it right, you will even get women to do anything you want. The secret is in the way you utilize psychological prompts to persuade women to go out with you. Read on to find out what techniques you can use to make it happen.

“Persuasive Seduction” Methods To Make Her Do Anything You Want

Tactic #1. “Tame Her”. A woman’s first instinct when they’re faced with a strong and dominant man is to obey. This is evolution in action, dude, so listen up.

Women who are always used to busting men with weak personalities will instantly turn coquettish and demure when you turn on the tyrannical charm. You should be someone she respects and trusts before she can hand over her control of the interaction to you. Leadership skills are what you need to turn a girl into a follower.

Tactic #2. “Unique Approach”. One thing that will make a woman stick around is the fact that she’s invariably intrigued by you. If you show behaviour that is different from all the other men who approached her that night, you have a better chance of getting her number and setting up a date in the future.

Tactic #3. “Your Secret Bag of Dirty Tricks”. Who said you can’t use underhanded techniques to persuade women to go out with you? You can, and here’s how: use hypnosis.

In particular, you can utilize the lessons you can learn from a seduction technique called Fractionation, which involves making a woman feel emotionally dependent on you from the get-go. By making her go through an emotional roller coaster, you’re making her feel closer to you than anyone in the room.

Source by Derek Rake


Christmas Card Fonts – Which Do You Like Best?

Isn’t it interesting how things such as paper quality, ink color, and even fonts can affect how we emotionally react to printed material? It’s all in the presentation and during this holiday time of year, that is clearly evident in the Christmas cards we send out to those we love and want to remember. It’s a generally happy season, and so we want to only utilize effects that will evoke joy in our recipients.

Ever wonder about fonts? Who creates them…how they are developed…what goes on in the mind of those who do bring them into being? It’s clearly an art form, something that never existed before – and then is. When I think about creation, things such as music and literature are easy enough to process. We put together words, and come up with something someone else reads and reacts to. We string together sounds, and the result is music that can stir someone else’s soul, or make them want to run and hide with their hands over the ears.

Yet fonts, while they truly are art, take an existing reality-a letter-and that letter is developed into various shapes, sizes, and formats to bring about a completely different set of visualizations for that one previously-simple reality. It’s almost like a math equation. Take one letter, add one shape and another slant, and the final count is a completely different creation.

The best-recognized fonts used for the Christmas holidays are often the traditional ones, those we have adjusted ourselves to seeing year after year. Times New Roman or something old-fashioned like Bookman Old Style, or a script such as Royal Classic-these bring to mind, somehow, turn-of-the-century snow rides, cocoa by the fireplace, Victorian houses decorated in fir trimmings and snowmen in the big front yards…and Currier and Ives-esque lifestyles.

Then there are singularly-recognizable Christmas fonts, created just for the holidays…fonts called Snowcaps and Snowdrift, both with the images of dripping white at the top of each bold and solid letter; or Christmas Regular which shows letters drawn inside of tree ornaments; or of course the so-traditional Christmas Tree or Christmas candy letters or snowflakes, all of which are self-explanatory and logical to the mind’s eye.

Fonts created out of recognizable pictures are more literally artwork than developed fonts, and it becomes your choice to decide if you’re looking for something which compliments the holiday artwork, or which becomes the holiday artwork. There are many sites online these days offering free fonts, and they can be beneficial to someone who wants to develop their own Christmas cards with an online printer. Find that font that speaks directly to you, go to your printing choice, and use the online options to design your own cards.

Your creativity is limited in today’s world only by that which your imagination-or your search engine-can bring to your mind. And, really, we don’t have to understand the art of fonts to appreciate them and the senses they create in our hearts and minds. Mix it up and make something unique for this holiday season!

Source by Linda J. Alexander


Principles of Speech Communication

Speech making is perhaps one of the innate abilities of man, irrespective of one’s citizenry, or ethnic affiliations. Yet many people speak without understanding that it is a special ability without which communication between people and groups would not be possible.

Speech communication differs from normal day to day talking in which one speaks sporadically without considering ethics and skills. However, it is similar to every day communication in that they are both driven by the aim to communicate meaningfully.

Speech making is an organized communication aimed at sharing specific message about a given subject to create impact towards solving human problems.

This article provides guidance in the following areas:

Types of speech

Sages/steps in the speech making process and

Structure of a speech

Types of Speech

The onus remains squarely, on every speech maker to identify the type of speech most suitable to his/her purpose. For emphasis, it should be known that the aim of your delivery should be the sole factor dictating the style/type of speech you should choose to use.

Generally, there are, for conveniences, sake, four basic speech types, viz:

• Argumentative speech

• Persuasive speech

• Educative speech and

• Informative speech.

Argumentative Speech Type

Arguments imply elaborate presentation of all perspectives to an object or a subject of discussion, before settling down for the most applicable option. What comes out of an argument as most acceptable may not necessarily be truer, or better than other options, but the process of arguing makes it best, when compared to the others. This is why one choosing this type must bear in mind that it is his/her approach to it, and the ability to convince that determines the success or failure of the entire process.

While this may be closely related to persuasive essay, the dissimilarity lies in using points to convince at all cost.

To argue therefore, the speech maker needs to clearly and exhaustively raise every point of the issue and state facts about it. And this statement of facts is the “why” of the validity or not of your argument.

Persuasive Speech Type

As the name indicates, this type of speech is meant to stimulate a favourable disposition towards the subject of your concern or to appeal to audience to see it your way and act as you desire.

Companies, individuals and Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs) that depend on project grants are often required to their proposals in brief, before forums of grant agencies. In doing this, they are expected to give brief, straight-to-point run down of what they propose to do to achieve goal, if given grant. This summary must necessarily include a statement of methodology and justification why it has to be your proposal, and not that of another. You must convince that using so and so method, you will be able to achieve set goals within the specified time, without waste of resources and this, you must do without doubt.

A high point worthy of emphasis is that to persuade, a speech maker must JUSTIFY why you are convinced that your method is most suitable to deliver best result. Your entire exercise will be meaningless if it fails to provide justification.

Also, students defending their research projects/thesis/dissertations ought to bear this in mind, as they will at one time or another, need to persuade their tutors I favour of their work.

Educative Speech Type

Although teaching in a class room situation requires more than speech making skills, it would do you well as a professional teacher, haven undergone training in the profession, to add these to your skills. As one who teaches in a school or a religious organization, one makes speeches often, both officially and otherwise.

Advertising agencies as well make use of this type of speech as product display demonstration to teach prospective consumers of a new product a step – by – step approach to using it.

An educative speech provides a comprehensible how-to-do-it guide to given subjects and must be done carefully to avoid confusing consumers/students/audience/congregation.

Informative Speech Type

The aim of this class of speech is to make known. This may come in presentable form in which the speech maker delivers it to audience or may be a press release. Whichever the case, both the writer and giver of speech must choose words carefully in order not to mislead, as the aim is to give accurate, unmistaken information as at press conference, organizational report forums, annual general meetings, state of the affair reviews etc.

Whether as government official, a politician or celebrity wishing to tell subordinated, colleagues or fans and the mass media something, this type of speech serves you best, as it equally serves the technology company wishing to inform its market of its newest innovation.

Security agencies and Public Relations Executives of all manner of corporate entities should be versed in this type of speech, as they will find it useful in the course of their careers.

Stages in the Speech Making Process

As already stated in the introduction, why you make speech is to communicate towards an end. Thus, your speech can only be seen as a success if the aim is achieved at the end of the day. To achieve an aim, professional speech communication follows a procedure, which is here written as the stages/steps in the speech communication process. They include:

• Research: If you are to speak, it means that there is someone you are to speak to, about something, something of importance to both of you, and at a given time and place. Your first responsibility is to FIND OUT what it is you are going to talk about. Whatever it is, you must study it to know far more than you will need to talk about and in this case, it is necessary to preempt the likely questions your audiences are to ask, and provide answers in the speech you make.

where and when necessary, consult with people such as experts, who have better technical understanding of the subject than you and to these, pose ALL your questions and let their answers be the knowledge with which you confront the exercise, as these answers should be the basis of the speech you present. In doing this, you should avoid stating the obvious. By this I mean elements that can easily be deciphered and understood should not be your primary aim to explain, rather you will do more good to seek out areas that are not likely to be understood at first glance by the lay man and on these, place your emphasis.

If for instance your speech is a political manifesto, it will be more profitable to describe in detail, what you intend to do to solve certain societal problems and your conduct in office, should you be elected, than to dwell on the might of your political party or on the electioneering process – whoever your audience are already know how to vote and how strong your party is but even if they don’t, there are people stationed to teach them those.

If on the other hand your concern is a product/service as a PRE/Advertiser, or an issue intangible as those handled by spiritual leaders and programme facilitators, seek out beforehand, opinions and opposing views about the product/service/issue. Be sure to find out details about the product/service/issue as to how it functions or implications of every standpoint in an issue. It is only this detailed understanding of subject that places you above your audience to be able to grant answers to their every question, including the ones they are not able to ask.

When you have satisfactorily understudied the subject of your presentation, you should as well endeavor to study the people to whom you will be speaking. This may require going the extra mile to study the various groups of people likely to be present at your presentation as well as their depth of understanding of the subject. Also, their depth of understanding of the language of communication is of importance, as this helps your
diction for proper understanding.

You may as well, need to take a closer look at the place and time of your presentation. Though this may not be of same relevance as the first two, but is advisable because the place and time of an event contribute to a large extent, to the atmosphere of the event and in effective communication, the atmosphere is as important as the message itself as it colours the meaning of a message. This is why “good morning” at a time may be a greeting and at another time, a disturbance, as “yes” may mean yes at time but mean “no” at other times.

• Speech Writing: A well-researched speech may often end up poorly delivered if it is poorly documented, as many speech makers find the Read Only Strategy (ROS) more convenient than any other method. For a speech to be remarkable, its research, documentation and delivery must be sufficiently mastered.

Whether commissioned to write a speech for someone else to deliver or not, speech writing requires an interplay of excellent writing skills controlled by specific facts gained through research conducted at the initial stage with appropriate and accurate choice of words and illustrations, analogies etcetera.

Here are the basic formats of speech writing: the scripted speech, the semi-scripted speech, the outline speech and the unscripted format.

Scripted Speech: Earlier I mentioned ROS (Read Only Strategy) which is my description for a speech that is pre written and delivered verbatim unfortunately, this leaves no room for improvisation thus, where the speech writer is different from its presenter, the latter may have little or no idea about the technicalities of the subject of discussion, as he/she only read what is on paper. In this case, questions asked pose a great challenge to the presenter and may often be a source of embarrassment. A person delivering speech using ROS, without sufficient rehearsal may get pronunciations wrong and dodge questions at the end of the exercise as politicians do, because they are hardly involved in the creation of their speeches. However, this is the most used type of speech, practiced by political icons and celebrities because of its convenience.

The hugest merit of this is the convenience and the fact that individuals who are extremely shy or incompetent can hide away their weaknesses behind the paper already written for them. Also, the speech presenter may not need to have a deep knowledge of the subject, provided the writer of the speech does a good job. It is of advantage to persons who make many speeches within limited time and have little or no time to rehearse.

Notwithstanding, the problem with ROS is that it leaves the audience bored, as the speech maker is buried in the paper rather than keeping contact with the people to whom the presentation is being made.

The Semi – Scripted Speech Format: a speech is semi – scripted when only the principal lines of thought are written down, leaving the rest to be done on the spot of delivery. The preacher in a religious event may for example, write down a theme and scriptural texts while leaving the connected sentences to the process of delivery.

This method, a combination of ROS and improvisation proves beneficial when the speech writer is the same as the one to delivers. Otherwise, it becomes almost impracticable to deliver a semi – scripted speech prepared by somebody else. Where it is feasible, the writer and presenter must necessarily require massive effort at rehearsals which may not always be forth coming.

Out – Line Speech Format: Highly flexible and creative method that only notes in sequence, key points while leaving connected sentences to the delivery point. The advantage of this lies in the fact that where the atmosphere does not permit certain lines of thought or use of language, the speech maker changes direction. And because it is outlined rather than scripted, prevailing circumstances, at event venue, such as mood, time and language suitability are easily manageable. However, this method is most successful where the speech writer is the speech maker or where the latter has equal in-depth knowledge of subject and shares similar views with the former.

Unscripted Speech Format: This, otherwise referred here as improvisation or impromptu, is a speech format that requires no prior writing at all. Its success solely depends on the speech maker’s ability to improvise, that is, to create instantaneously, a spontaneous response to the situation. This, experience has shown, is the most effective speech style that does not fail to take audience along, as it is a child of circumstance.

Often you are asked to provide a repertoire or vote of thanks without warning. Using this format, you get your data from the prevailing circumstance and must immediately become a millionaire in thinking and in language if your audiences are of the millionaire class or you can be a road side mechanic if those are the people you are to communicate to.

The problem with this is that for beginners, improvisation could be challenging, as it requires tact and a lot of self-confidence.

• Rehearsals: After your documentation, the next stage is rehearsals. This simply means a trying out of yourself, a practice simulating the actual presentation you will be doing.

When doing this, critique your eye contact, facial expressions, gesticulations and general comportment. While practicing in front of your mirror may not be exactly similar to doing it in front of a thousand people, it gives you an idea of your look and performance and allows you to improve on those areas. You may like to present to your friend, spouse or kin to have their inputs.

• Speech Presentation: The essence of all the activities carried out from stage one is to achieve a remarkable presentation, such as would leave a desired impact by achieving the goal pursuant of which the speech was meant to be made. It therefore cannot be over-emphasized that this is the most vital aspect of the entire exercise, as it is the only thing people see and know about. Audiences do not follow you to your closet to see that you have researched your piece well but they will decide whether or not you have done well once you have delivered. For this reason, I like to say that it is better to conduct a poor research, do a poor documentation but superb presentation rather than having it the other way round.

To aid your performance in this regard, a couple of problems have been identified and solutions proffered here:

Overcoming Stage Fright: The incidence of stage fright is one menace too many that ruins otherwise, a remarkable speech. Your ability to manage this is as important as the other elements in the process involved, as your audience are not lenient, but are always looking for loopholes to capitalize on in unmaking your effort.

Ironically, everyone has some level of stage fright. The only difference being that some see the high tensed atmosphere and the rapid beating of their hearts as a positive force that complements their strength of delivery, while others fret at it.

What constitutes stage fright is fear; fear of the many eyes gazing at you, possibly “dissecting” and finding fault in whatever you are telling them, what you wear and the entirety of your being. Surprisingly, all this is more imagined than real, as audience hardly have any doubt until you give them a reason to. When you give the impression that you are in control, they accept that you are and thus, look up to you for answers.

Your appearance and perhaps gesticulations which you may have seen as errors become model to be emulated. This is why you must make your fear work for you.

There are several tricks to achieving this, two of which are suggested below:

Ice-Breaking – this refers to a ploy of ventilating tension rising from high expectation and an aura of formality. Audience expecting or rather, awaiting your presentation are kin and formal. This formality exerts more pressure on you, as you feel intense need and anxiety to deliver. In extreme cases, this rais
es doubts inn you as to whether you can satisfy them or not so you begin to stammer, jump words on the speech or add nonexistent words to the already prepared piece.

To break-the-ice, you can tell a short, relevant story or begin by doing an out of the way exercise like giving a joke or introducing yourself. This breaks the air of formality and helps both you and your audience relax enough to conveniently and enjoyably face the business of the day. By the time you have made your audience laugh or you have expended your pent-up tension telling a story, you will have made the atmosphere informal enough and gained the rapt attention of the audience.

Pen Cap Trick: Another way of managing stage fright is by directing the tension to your finger tips rather than to your head and mouth. This is possible by keeping your fingers actively engaged, as the natural course of function of the human system directs pressure/energy to a part of the body that is engaged in an activity. Therefore, if your attention lies only with your eyes and vocal cord, they will have to find a way of expending all the energy directed at them and in the process, mistakes could be made.

Splitting this pressure from your upper region to another section helps to keep balance in the overall management of tension and helps you coordinate and concentrate better in the efficacious delivery of your speech. The trick is to keep an object in your hand which your fingers will be compressing while you do the talking.

Because this activity is more physical than the intellectual role of speaking, more tension/pressure in exerted and expended here, leaving your heart with less thuds per time, and your concentration devoid of excessive anxiety.

However, it is advised that you pick an object that would not attract more attention than the speech. Something small enough to be completely hidden in your pals, and that does not make noise would do. Many people use paper clip, which they bend and straighten many times, while they speak. I had used pen cap made of plastic.

Looking, not Seeing: When presenting a speech or any creative work before an audience, many beginners find that they get lost if they focus on keeping eye contact with specific members of audience. The fact that your audience are taken along more when you keep eye contact with them is not to say that you must pay attention to the expressions on the faces as this will, more often than not, distract you. You can look in the direction of your audience generally without seeing of focusing on any one in particular. That way, everyone thinks you are looking at the next person and you end up achieving satisfactory presentation at the conclusion.

Diction: This had been touched earlier, but cannot be exhausted. The language of presentation should be chosen in line with the characteristics of the audience. Generally, a verbose speech is unnecessarily lengthy and full of jaw breaking language that make everyone clap for you not for the meaning and sense derived from your presentation, but for the amusement. The bottom line is to communicate, not to impress.

Structure of a Good Speech

A good speech, like every good piece of writing, is not just poured out at audience, but is meaningfully communicated only when it meets a prescribed, conventional specification. Every speech, good or bad has the following components, which either makes or mars it, depending on the writer/presenter’s ability to weave the various components into one beautiful piece or failure to do so, which leaves the work deformed like a physically challenged man.

• An introduction: this being the first line of your presentation, it is the most important as it sets the tone and mood for the rest of the presentation. If therefore, your introduction is good, it captivates audiences’ attention and stirs up interest: sends questions, expectations and anxieties running in the minds of the audience. So also does a poor introduction kill their appetite, so that rather than get anxious to get the rest of the gist from you, they get anxious to dispose of your time wasting presence. Speech makers of reasonable experience will tell you that the most embarrassing moment of their careers was when an audience just stared at them indifferently, while they made frantic efforts to get their attention. Often, they’d ignore you and fill in the gap by telling stories and holding pockets of briefs underground.

To avoid such pitfalls, your introduction must stir interest and be interesting enough for one man to tell another to keep quiet let him hear you well, as each speech must be worth the time spent to receive it. Otherwise, they would just switch off psycho-mentally, while leaving you to make the noise.

To achieve this, you can ask a rhetoric question, use an anecdote (a short analogical story) or a catchy quote but which must be relevant and which would make your presentation easier to achieve.

• Linkage: while some may argue rightly that the body of a speech and this section are indistinct, there is a need here to split them for the purpose of proper better understanding. A linkage is a sentence or two that connect the introduction with the details’ section (body) of the presentation.

• The Body of Details: Haven captivated the interest of your audience in the introduction and properly linked it using appropriate word, the emphasis now rests on providing all the details that are the main thrust of the presentation. All the points you may have gathered in the research will now be knit together beautifully and well explained to answer the questions your audience are likely to be asking. Your points must be well explained and objectively convincing enough that at the end, your audience will be left in no doubt (even if their own opinion differ), but rather have clear understanding of your impressions.

• The Conclusion: the last line of a good presentation should leave a lasting impression on people’s minds. Often, a relevant quote or rhetoric does the magic but the speech writer or (and) the presenter should understand that the relevance of the devices to subject or occasion as well as your accuracy of expressions is what leaves indelible marks on the minds of audiences. The conclusion should be food for thought, something people should remember long after they may have forgotten everything else, including the speech maker.

Basic Principles by Dreg En Ay

Source by Dreg En Ay


Management and Leadership Value Realization – Two Sides of the Same Coin

Picture two fires ablaze in your beloved community. Different individuals represent each building with equally good plans on how to stop the fire. One steps forward reminding the people that his historic site has a valuable legacy to all, while the other structure is merely an empty warehouse. He calls out with hands held high for everyone to grab their buckets and form a line, chanting cheers to their accomplishments. The other person gets out their blow horn barking out orders to get going, demanding results or else, “I’ll hit you with my cane.”

Where would you focus your efforts? To whom would you give your highest level of efforts? People who are inspired to do their best for a larger purpose bring substantially more than lemmings “going through the motions” in fear of disciplinary action.

This story simply illustrates the value of both leadership and management and why they must co-exist to have truly great accomplishments. You need to simultaneously have a larger perspective and be able to clearly define the steps to get where you need to go. A higher vantage point benefits one greatly with vision and knowledge, but at the same time, one cannot do what one cannot define.

Last week, we held a Luminary Board meeting with some of the top C-Level minds in our area. The discussion was around how to make good managers better, of course, and the constant betterment of the approach to make that a reality. A resonating point was brought to light when a brilliant mind surmised, “An ‘A’ player to me is not just a manager but a leader.” What a difference.

To gain further perspective, here is a quick checklist to help define those differences between managers and leaders:


Manage other’s activities……Motivate others to achieve

Make plans……Promote vision

Formal authority dictated……Given authority through influence

Task focused……Achievement focused

Risk averse……Risk seeking


Have subordinates……Have followers


Focus on things……Focus on people

Create systems……Create an environment

Short-term approach……Long-term approach


Administers and tracks change…….Maintains continual improvement

Acquired rewards……Intrinsic rewards

All about control……All about trust

The fact is, the most effective leaders have both characteristics. But managers without leadership traits simply will not become true leaders. What they can do is focus their efforts around ongoing improvements that increase their performance to help close the gap.

It has been said…Managers do things right. Leaders do the right things. Utopia exists when we are doing the right things right.

Source by Shiloh Kelly